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- SourceAvailable from: Petra Minder[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many malignant characteristics of cancer cells are regulated through pathways induced by the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Herein, we show that besides directly affecting the biology of cancer cells per se, EGFR also regulates the primary tumor microenvironment. Specifically, our findings demonstrate that both the expression and signaling activity of EGFR are required for the induction of a distinct intratumoral vasculature capable of sustaining tumor cell intravasation, a critical rate-limiting step in the metastatic cascade. An intravasation-sustaining mode of intratumoral angiogenic vessels depends on high levels of tumor cell EGFR and the interplay between EGFR-regulated production of interleukin 8 by tumor cells, interleukin-8–induced influx of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils delivering their unique matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neutrophil matrix metalloproteinase-9–dependent release of the vascular permeability and endothelial growth factor, VEGF. Our data indicate that through VEGF-mediated disruption of endothelial layer integrity and increase of intratumoral vasculature permeability, EGFR activity significantly facilitates active intravasation of cancer cells. Therefore, this study unraveled an important but overlooked function of EGFR in cancer, namely, its ability to create an intravasation-sustaining microenvironment within the developing primary tumor by orchestrating several interrelated processes required for the initial steps of cancer metastasis through vascular routes. Our findings also suggest that EGFR-targeted therapies might be more effective when implemented in cancer patients with early-staged primary tumors containing a VEGF-dependent angiogenic vasculature. Accordingly, early EGFR inhibition combined with various anti-VEGF approaches could synergistically suppress tumor cell intravasation through inhibiting the highly permeable angiogenic vasculature induced by EGFR-overexpressing aggressive cancer cells.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 08/2015; 17(8):634-649. DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2015.08.002
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ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a distinct stage of cancer progression that requires the development of angiogenic blood vessels serving as conduits for tumor cell dissemination. An accumulated body of evidence indicates that metastasis-supporting neovasculature should possess certain structural characteristics allowing for the process of tumor cell intravasation, an active entry of cancer cells into the vessel interior. It appears that the development of tumor vessels with lumens of a distinctive size and their structure supported by a discontinuous pericyte coverage, together constitute critical microarchitectural requirements to: (a) provide accessible points for vessel wall penetration by primary tumor cells; (b) provide enough lumen space for a tumor cell or cell aggregate upon intravasation; and (c) allow for sufficient rate of blood flow to carry away intravasated cells from the primary tumor to the next, proximal or distal site. This review will primarily focus on the functional roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which catalytically trigger the development of an intravasation-sustaining neovasculature at the early stages of tumor growth and are also required for the maintenance of a metastasis-supporting state of blood vessels at later stages of cancer progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 04/2015; 126. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2015.04.004
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ABSTRACT: The evolutionary design of genetic switches and circuits requires iterative rounds of positive (ON-) and negative (OFF-) selection. We previously reported a rapid OFF selection system based on the kinase activity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (hsvTK) on the artificial mutator nucleoside dP. By fusing hsvTK with the kanamycin resistance marker aminoglycoside-(3')-phosphotransferase (APH), we established a novel selector system for genetic switches. Due to the bactericidal nature of kanamycin and nucleoside-based lethal mutagenesis, both positive and negative selection could be completed within several hours. Using this new selector system, we isolated a series of homoserine lactone-inducible genetic switches with different expression efficiencies from libraries of the Vibrio fischeri lux promoter in two days, using only liquid handling.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120243. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120243
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