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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This article investigates patterns of reasons for digital disengagement of British adults. It adds a psychological dimension to research that is mostly sociological in nature in trying to separate out explanations for disengaging from the Internet by choice or by forced exclusion. The analysis of a nationally representative survey shows differences between the number of reasons and the most important reasons among different sociodemographic groups, but also among individuals with different psychological profiles. The findings suggest that ex- and nonusers do not have one simple reason for nonuse, but a multifaceted range of reasons, which often represent disadvantages at several levels. The range of often mentioned reasons, moreover, shows that motivations for disengagement cannot be measured by means of the most important reason, but that all reasons have to be taken into account and looked at concertedly.
    Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Inspired by the “Keywords in Communication” theme of the 2009 ICA conference, this paper observes the pivotal role played by “the interview” in the history of audience research. Although interviewing implies bidirectionality, research following Lazarsfeld constructed the powerful interviewer and obedient interviewee, a tradition challenged by the critical turn in reception studies and its emphasis on interviewee expertise. This enabled research to pose crucial challenges to media and communication theory through giving the audience a voice. Yet today, this challenge risks being undermined as textbooks emphasize traditional methods, as the analysis of new media repositions mass audiences as “passive,” and as researchers seem reluctant in practice to go out and talk to the public.Dando Voz a la Gente: El Rol Crítico de la Entrevista en la Historia de la Investigación de la AudienciaSonia LivingstoneDepartment of Media and Communications, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UKResumenInspirado en el tema de la conferencia de ICA sobre las “Palabras Claves en la Comunicación, ’’ este artículo observa el rol fundamental jugado por ‘‘la entrevista, ’’ en la historia de la investigación de la audiencia. Aunque hacer entrevistas implica bi-direccionalidad, la investigación siguiendo Lazarsfeld construyó al entrevistador poderoso y al entrevistado obediente, una tradición desafiada por el cambio crítico en los estudios de recepción y su énfasis en el entrevistado experto. Esto permitió que la investigación ponga desafíos a la teoría de los medios y la comunicación dándole voz a la audiencia. Aún hoy, este desafío corre el riesgo de ser devaluada dado que los libros de texto enfatizan los métodos tradicionales, los nuevos medios reposicionan a las audiencias masivas como ‘‘pasivas, ’’ y los investigadores no parecen estar seguros de ir y hablar con el público.Donner une voix aux gens : du rôle critique de l’entretien dans l’histoire de la recherche sur les auditoiresSonia LivingstoneInspiré du thème « Mots clés de la communication » de la conférence 2009 de l’ICA, cet article examine le rôle crucial joué par « l’entretien » dans l’histoire de la recherche sur les auditoires. Bien que l’entretien suggère la bidirectionnalité, la recherche qui a suivi Lazarsfeld a construit l’image du puissant intervieweur et de l’interviewé obéissant. Cette tradition a été contestée par le tournant critique des études de la réception et l’importance qu’il accorde aux compétences des interviewés. Cette mise en question a permis à la recherche de soulever des enjeux cruciaux de la théorie de la communication et des médias en donnant une voix à l’auditoire. Or aujourd’hui, cette mission risque d’être ébranlée par les manuels qui insistent sur les méthodes traditionnelles, par les médias d’information qui repositionnent les auditoires de masse comme étant « passifs » et par les chercheurs qui semblent réticents à sortir parler au public.Den Menschen eine Stimme geben: Zur kritischen Rolle des Interviews in der Geschichte der PublikumsforschungSonia LivingstoneInspiriert durch das Konferenzthema ,,Schlüsselworte der Kommunikation“ der ICA-Jahrestagung 2009, befasst sich dieser Artikel mit der zentralen Rolle des ,,Interviews“ in der Geschichte der Publikumsforschung. Auch wenn Interviewführung grundsätzlich eine Bidirektionalität impliziert, konstruierte die Forschungstradition nach Lazarsfeld den mächtigen Interviewer und den gehorchenden Interviewten - eine Tradition, die im Zuge der kritischen Wende in der Rezeptionsforschung und der Betonung der Expertise des Interviewten in Frage gestellt wurde. Indem dem Publikum eine Stimme gegeben wurde, konnte die Forschung wesentliche Herausforderungen an die Medien- und Kommunikationstheorie herantragen. Allerdings laufen diese Herausforderungen heute Gefahr, unterminiert zu werden, da in den Lehrbüchern traditionelle Methoden betont werden, neue Medien die Massenpublika als ,,passiv“ repositionieren und Forscher zögern, hinauszugehen und mit der Öffentlichkeit zu sprechen.
    Communication Culture & Critique 11/2010; 3(4):566 - 571.
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    ABSTRACT: A national UK survey (N = 1017) examined the association between media consumption and three indicators of civic participation - likelihood of voting, interest in politics, and actions taken in response to a public issue of concern to the respondent. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the variance explained by media use variables after first controlling for demographic, social and political predictors of each indicator of participation. Media use significantly added to explaining variance in civic participation as follows. In accounting for voting, demographic and political/social factors mattered, but so too did some media habits (listening to the radio and engagement with the news). Interest in politics was accounted for by political/social factors and by media use, especially higher news engagement and lower media trust. However, taking action on an issue of concern was accounted for only by political/social factors, with the exception that slightly fewer actions were taken by those who watched more television. These findings provided little support for the media malaise thesis, and instead were interpreted as providing qualified support for the cognitive/motivational theory of news as a means of engaging the public.
    British Journal of Sociology 07/2008; 59(2):351-71.
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    ABSTRACT: In this talk I will attempt to give an overview of the emerging field of Digital Ecosystems research. I will outline some of the significant events and conceptual turning points of the past few years, the current activities, and the future challenges. In all cases my comments will be divided into two parts: the first part focuses on digital ecosystems as an Open Source technology inspired by biological ecosystems; the second part extends the meaning of the term to encompass the people and the companies that populate DEs, and the collaborative/ communicative processes by which new business and economic models are being forged. Keeping these two perspectives distinct and faithful to their respective philosophical traditions has enabled us to begin to understand how the process of formalisation of knowledge can couple constructively the behaviour of the very different kinds of actors inhabiting these two interacting epistemological spaces. Meanwhile, Digital Ecosystems are emerging in different parts of the world, in different socio-economic and cultural contexts, and can already provide a broad range of case studies for sustainable development. The talk will conclude with an overview of the interesting initiatives taking shape within and across the growing world-wide network of digital ecosystems.
    Digital EcoSystems and Technologies Conference, 2007. DEST '07. Inaugural IEEE-IES; 03/2007
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates practices of domestic regulation of media within the family, focusing on parental attempts to manage children’s access to and use of new media. Theoretically, the paper seeks to integrate the specific literature on domestic rules and regulation of media use with the broader literature on the rules and roles in social situations, arguing that parental strategies in relation to domestic media reveal both the enactment of and the negotiations over the typically informal and implicit rules and roles in family life. These issues are explored using data from two surveys: (1) the ‘Young People, New Media’ project surveyed 1300 children and their parents, examining the social, relational and contextual factors that shape the ways in which families develop rules for managing the introduction of the personal computer and the multiplication of television sets, among other new media changes, in the home; (2) the ‘UK Children Go Online’ project surveyed 1500 children and their parents, updating the picture by examining the introduction of the Internet into the family home. On the basis of these data, it is argued that despite the ‘newness’ of media as they successively arrive in the home, there are considerable consistencies over time in the responses of families, it being the slow-to-change relations between parents and children that shape patterns of domestic regulation and use.
    Computers in Human Behavior. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: This article examines efforts to provide low-cost Internet access devices for the poor in the light of debates about the appropriate role of information and communication technologies in development and the priority that should be given to enabling the poor to become connected to global networks. A critical analysis of recent private sector initiatives to design low-cost laptop computers is offered in the wider context of the need to consider the politics of technology and the insights that can be drawn from ongoing debates about ICT4D and the need for public dialogue and evaluation of investment priorities in forums that enable the participation of the poor. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of International Development. 02/2006; 18(6):901-913.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper summarises the findings of a study, the first of its kind in Germany, which explored the potential that the Internet can offer for German Fairtrade organisations. Data was gathered from three organisations, comparing their e-commerce strategies. Then interviews were conducted with the organisations' representatives and with the e-commerce customers of Gesellschaft zur Partnerschaft mit der Dritten Welt (Gepa), the largest Fairtrade company in Europe. The Fairtrade organisations differed in political outlook and in regards to their approach to the Internet, thus reducing the potential for cooperation and networking. However, some of the Gepa customers interviewed used e-commerce to circumnavigate the distribution difficulties characteristic of Fairtrade, thus suggesting that there is potential for increased turnover. On the other hand, many of the customers were not interested in accessing the informational part of the Gepa-website, so the potential for disseminating political information with the product is low. Based on in-depth interviews with online buyers, it is argued that customers will only access campaign information online if Fairtrade organisations become more visible in offline and online debates on global justice. Like other Civil Society actors, Fairtrade organisations need to develop strategies how they can best use the Internet for their aims. This, the paper argues, will have to include careful vetting of the brand and connected website as well as appropriate and ongoing investment of personal and financial resources. The overall marketing strategy will have to integrate the offline and online presence and should aim to customise the organisations' services to more or less committed supporters. The paper calls for further research on Civil Society's use of the Internet and advocates website analysis as a particularly useful method to decipher the non-governmental organisations' strategies as they negotiate their message with the mainstream of public opinion.
    Interacting with Computers. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: Television's liveness has long been seen as one of its key features. This paper argues that “liveness” is not a textual feature, but a more fundamental category (in Durkheim's sense) that contributes to underlying conceptions of how media are involved in social organization through their provision of privileged access to central social “realities.” This ideological view of liveness (cf. Jane Feuer's early work) is then extended in two ways: first, to consider two new forms of “liveness” that do not involve television (online liveness via the Internet and “group liveness” via the mobile phone); and second, by connecting liveness with Bourdieu's concept of habitus, and thereby linking “liveness” (including in its extended senses) with other parts of the materialized system of classification through which we make sense of the everyday world.
    The Communication Review 09/2004; 7(4):353-361.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this section is to summarise research on the factors contributing to the establishment of trust amongst small-and medium–sized enterprises (SMEs) in Digital Business Ecosystems. This section describes the development of a Knowledge Base of Regulatory Issues that are important in the context of the development of Free Software/Open Source (FS/OS) for commercial use within the European Union countries. The Knowledge Base of Regulatory Issues arising from SMEs' participation in Digital Business Ecosystems is discussed in the wider context of the Digital Business Ecosystems initiative to indicate the results of initial research, to highlight aspects of the change of paradigm associated with ecosystems which involve trust, and to emphasise the need to confront conceptual research on technological change with empirical examination of the real-life contexts in which these ecosystems are developing. In order to achieve this aim, in section 1 the core theoretical issues are identified and examined in terms of the engagement and participation of SMEs in Business to Business (B2B) collaborations within ecosystems. Issues of trust were identified in the early phase of the research as having the potential to constrain SME participation in e-business initiatives. Section 1 presents a conceptual analysis of the layers of trust required for increasing SME participation. Section 2 presents an illustration of the rationale leading to the methodology used to establish a taxonomy framework for addressing the regulatory issues. In section 3 a three-dimensional taxonomy framework is presented, together with a discussion of the Knowledge Base of Regulatory Issues that emerged as being of critical importance for developing trust among SMEs involved in ecosystems, that is, privacy, e-signatures and security, jurisdiction and consumer protection.
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