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    ABSTRACT: To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 53.6 and 44.7μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.49μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia.
    Food Chemistry 12/2013; 141(3):2170-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control.
    Food & function. 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The vascular inflammatory role of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is thought to be due to the formation of lysophosphatidyl choline and oxidized non-esterified fatty acids. This enzyme is considered a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis and there is a need to expand the available chemical templates of PAF-AH inhibitors. This study demonstrated how natural PAF-AH inhibitory peptides were isolated and characterized from the red macroalga Palmaria palmata. The dried powdered alga was hydrolyzed using the food grade enzyme papain, and the resultant peptide containing fraction generated using RP-HPLC. Several oligopeptides were identified as potential PAF-AH inhibitors following bio-guided fractionation, and the amino acid sequences of these oligopeptides were confirmed by Q-TOF-MS and microwave-assisted solid phase de novo synthesis. The most promising PAF-AH inhibitory peptide had the amino acid sequence NIGK and a PAF-AH IC50 value of 2.32mM. This peptide may constitute a valid drug template for PAF-AH inhibitors. Furthermore the P. palmata hydrolysate was nontoxic when assayed using the Zebrafish toxicity model at a concentration of 1mg/ml.
    Peptides 10/2013;

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Outlook on agriculture 01/2001; 30(3):179-185.
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Trends in Food Science & Technology. 01/2004;
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