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    ABSTRACT: The combinatorial frequency generation by the periodic stacks of magnetically biased semiconductor layers has been modelled in a self-consistent problem formulation, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics of carriers. It is shown that magnetic bias not only renders nonreciprocity of the three-wave mixing process but also significantly enhances the nonlinear interactions in the stacks, especially at the frequencies close to the intrinsic magneto-plasma resonances of the constituent layers. The main mechanisms and properties of the combinatorial frequency generation and emission from the stacks are illustrated by the simulation results, and the effects of the individual layer parameters and the structure arrangement on the stack nonlinear and nonreciprocal response are discussed.
    Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new approach to speech enhancement from single-channel measurements involving both noise and channel distortion (i.e., convolutional noise), and demonstrates its applications for robust speech recognition and for improving noisy speech quality. The approach is based on finding longest matching segments (LMS) from a corpus of clean, wideband speech. The approach adds three novel developments to our previous LMS research. First, we address the problem of channel distortion as well as additive noise. Second, we present an improved method for modeling noise for speech estimation. Third, we present an iterative algorithm which updates the noise and channel estimates of the corpus data model. In experiments using speech recognition as a test with the Aurora 4 database, the use of our enhancement approach as a preprocessor for feature extraction significantly improved the performance of a baseline recognition system. In another comparison against conventional enhancement algorithms, both the PESQ and the segmental SNR ratings of the LMS algorithm were superior to the other methods for noisy speech enhancement.
    Computer Speech & Language 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Support vector machines (SVMs), though accurate, are not preferred in applications requiring high classification speed or when deployed in systems of limited computational resources, due to the large number of support vectors involved in the model. To overcome this problem we have devised a primal SVM method with the following properties: (1) it solves for the SVM representation without the need to invoke the representer theorem, (2) forward and backward selections are combined to approach the final globally optimal solution, and (3) a criterion is introduced for identification of support vectors leading to a much reduced support vector set. In addition to introducing this method the paper analyzes the complexity of the algorithm and presents test results on three public benchmark problems and a human activity recognition application. These applications demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
    Pattern Recognition. 04/2013; 46(4):1195–1208.
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years unmanned vehicles have grown in popularity, with an ever increasing number of applications in industry, the military and research within air, ground and marine domains. In particular, the challenges posed by unmanned marine vehicles in order to increase the level of autonomy include automatic obstacle avoidance and conformance with the Rules of the Road when navigating in the presence of other maritime traffic. The USV Master Plan which has been established for the US Navy outlines a list of objectives for improving autonomy in order to increase mission diversity and reduce the amount of supervisory intervention. This paper addresses the specific development needs based on notable research carried out to date, primarily with regard to navigation, guidance, control and motion planning. The integration of the International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea within the obstacle avoidance protocols seeks to prevent maritime accidents attributed to human error. The addition of these critical safety measures may be key to a future growth in demand for USVs, as they serve to pave the way for establishing legal policies for unmanned vessels.
    Annual Reviews in Control 12/2012; 36(2):267–283.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary development of an automatic collision avoidance technique for unmanned marine craft based on standardised rules, COLREGs, defined by the International Maritime Organisation. It is noted that all marine surface vessels are required to adhere to COLREGs at all times in order to minimise or eliminate the risk of collisions. The approach presented is essentially a reactive path planning algorithm which provides feedback to the autopilot of an unmanned vessel or the human captain of a manned ship for steering the craft safely. The proposed strategy consists of waypoint guidance by line-of-sight coupled with a manual biasing scheme. This is applied to the dynamic model of an unmanned surface vehicle. A simple PID autopilot is incorporated to ensure that the vessel adheres to the generated seaway. It is shown through simulations that the resulting scheme is able to generate viable trajectories in the presence of both stationary and dynamic obstacles. Rules 8 and 14 of the COLREGs, which apply to the amount of manoeuvre and to a head-on scenario respectively are simulated. A comparison is also made with an offline or deliberative grid-based path planning algorithm which has been modified to generate COLREGs-compliant routes.
    Mechatronics. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This case study examines how the lean ideas behind the Toyota production system can be applied to software project management. It is a detailed investigation of the performance of a nine-person software development team employed by BBC Worldwide based in London. The data collected in 2009 involved direct observations of the development team, the kanban boards, the daily stand-up meetings, semistructured interviews with a wide variety of staff, and statistical analysis. The evidence shows that over the 12-month period, lead time to deliver software improved by 37%, consistency of delivery rose by 47%, and defects reported by customers fell 24%. The significance of this work is showing that the use of lean methods including visual management, team-based problem solving, smaller batch sizes, and statistical process control can improve software development. It also summarizes key differences between agile and lean approaches to software development. The conclusion is that the performance of the software development team was improved by adopting a lean approach. The faster delivery with a focus on creating the highest value to the customer also reduced both technical and market risks. The drawbacks are that it may not fit well with existing corporate standards.
    IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 03/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Anisotropic impedance surfaces are employed as low-profile and broadband reflectors that convert orthogonal linear to right- and left-handed circular polarization respectively. By virtue of anisotropy, it is possible to independently control the reflection characteristics of two orthogonal linearly polarized incident plane waves and therefore achieve linear to circular polarization conversion. Equivalent circuits for anisotropic impedance surfaces with arbitrarily shaped elements are employed to demonstrate the operating principle and a design procedure is proposed. The proposed design procedure is demonstrated by means of an example involving a dipole array. A prototype is designed and its performance characteristics are evaluated. The 3-dB relative axial ratio bandwidth exceeds 60%, while low loss and angular stability are also reported. Numerical and experimental results on a fabricated prototype are presented to validate the synthesis and the performance.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Although a number of requirements change classifications have been proposed in the literature, there is no empirical assessment of their practical value in terms of their capacity to inform change monitoring and management. This paper describes an investigation of the informative efficacy of a taxonomy of requirements change sources which distinguishes between changes arising from `market', `organisation', `project vision', `specification' and `solution'. This investigation was effected through a case study where change data was recorded over a 16 month period covering the development lifecycle of a government sector software application. While insufficiency of data precluded an investigation of changes arising due to the change source of `market', for the remainder of the change sources, results indicate a significant difference in cost, value to the customer and management considerations. Findings show that higher cost and value changes arose more often from `organisation' and `vision' sources; these changes also generally involved the co-operation of more stakeholder groups and were considered to be less controllable than changes arising from the `specification' or `solution' sources. Overall, the results suggest that monitoring and measuring change using this classification is a practical means to support change management, understanding and risk visibility.
    Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), 2011 19th IEEE International; 10/2011
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    ABSTRACT: In polymer extrusion, the delivery of a melt which is homogenous in composition and temperature is paramount for achieving high quality extruded products. However, advancements in process control are required to reduce temperature variations across the melt flow which can result in poor product quality. The majority of thermal monitoring methods provide only low accuracy point/bulk melt temperature measurements and cause poor controller performance. Furthermore, the most common conventional proportional-integral-derivative controllers seem to be incapable of performing well over the nonlinear operating region. This paper presents a model-based fuzzy control approach to reduce the die melt temperature variations across the melt flow while achieving desired average die melt temperature. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed controller.
    Proceedings of the 18th IFAC World Congress; 08/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-terminal HVDC transmission technology using voltage source converters is proposed for integrating large offshore wind farms with transmission grids. Different DC voltage control and power dispatch strategies are proposed to demonstrate the flexibility and capability of such a transmission system in integrating large-scale variable wind generation. Various options for ensuring satisfactory ride through onshore grid faults are discussed. PSCAD/EMTDC simulations on a four-terminal high voltage direct current (HVDC) system with two offshore and two onshore converter stations during wind speed and power variations, and control mode switching are presented to show the robust performance and ability of the proposed system. Further studies during severe fault on one of the connected onshore AC networks are provided to validate the fault ride through capability of the multi-terminal HVDC system.
    IET Renewable Power Generation 06/2011;
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