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Publication History View all

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although prostate cancer is the most common malignancy to affect men in the Western world, the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression remain poorly understood. Like all cancers, prostate cancer is a genetic disease that is characterized by multiple genomic alterations, including point mutations, microsatellite variations, and chromosomal alterations such as translocations, insertions, duplications, and deletions. In prostate cancer, but not other carcinomas, these chromosome alterations result in a high frequency of gene fusion events. The development and application of novel high-resolution technologies has significantly accelerated the detection of genomic alterations, revealing the complex nature and heterogeneity of the disease. The clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer can be partly explained by this underlying genetic heterogeneity, which has been observed between patients from different geographical and ethnic populations, different individuals within these populations, different tumour foci within the same patient, and different cells within the same tumour focus. The highly heterogeneous nature of prostate cancer provides a real challenge for clinical disease management and a detailed understanding of the genetic alterations in all cells, including small subpopulations, would be highly advantageous.
    Nature Reviews Urology 11/2012; 9(11):652-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Numerous oncolytic viral mutants derived from a variety of strains have antitumor efficacy with limited or no toxicity to normal tissue. While all modes of administration were determined to be safe in patients with solid cancers refractory to current standard of care, this therapeutic approach requires further improvements to achieve definite efficacy. Areas covered: We review the most promising clinical developments with several oncolytic viruses. The focus is on preclinical and clinical findings with replication-selective adenoviral mutants including ONYX-015, H101 and Ad5ΔCR mutants that, to date, are the most studied oncolytic viruses. Cellular pathways reported to play a role in virus-induced cell killing are reviewed as potential targets for the development of more effective combinatorial therapies. Expert opinion: The most promising clinical outcomes for metastatic cancers have been reported for oncolytic vaccinia and herpes virus mutants expressing the cytokine GMCSF. However, highly efficacious and selective adenoviral mutants have been developed that interact synergistically with cytotoxic drugs in model systems. We anticipate that by delineating the cellular targets for synergistic cancer cell killing in response to adenoviral mutants and drugs such as apoptosis and autophagy signaling, greatly improved anticancer therapies will result in the near future.
    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets 08/2012; 16(10):945-58.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract AdΔΔ is an oncolytic adenoviral mutant that has been engineered to selectively target tumors with deregulated cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. AdΔΔ potentiates apoptotic cell death induced by drugs, including mitoxantrone and docetaxel, which are commonly used to treat prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that AdΔΔ can also interact synergistically with dietary phytochemicals known to have anti-cancer activities, without incurring the toxic side effects of chemodrugs. Curcumin, genistein, epigallocatechin-gallate, equol, and resveratrol efficiently killed both androgen-receptor positive (22Rv1) and negative cell lines (PC-3, DU145) in combination with adenoviral mutants. Synergistic cell killing was demonstrated with wild-type virus (Ad5) and AdΔΔ in combination with equol and resveratrol. EC(50) values for both phytochemicals and viruses were reduced three- to eightfold in all three combination-treated cell lines. The most potent efficacy was achieved in the cytotoxic drug- and virus-insensitive PC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo, while cell killing in normal bronchial epithelial cells was not enhanced. Although equol and resveratrol induced only low levels of apoptosis when administered alone, in combination with wild-type virus or AdΔΔ, the level of apoptotic cell death was significantly increased in PC-3 and DU145 cells. In vivo studies using suboptimal doses of AdΔΔ and equol or resveratrol, showed reduced tumor growth without toxicity to normal tissue. These findings identify novel functions for AdΔΔ and phytochemicals in promoting cancer cell killing and apoptosis, suggesting the use of these natural nontoxic compounds might be a feasible and currently unexploited anti-cancer strategy.
    Human gene therapy 07/2012; 23(9):1003-15.
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    ABSTRACT: The range of testicular tumours is so large that many pathologists may encounter the rarer variants only a few times, if at all, in their career. This rarity and complexity results in immense challenges for pathologists. For clinicians, due to their rarity and the high cure rate, the difficulty in conducting randomised trials in this area, even in the more common germ cell tumours, means that progress is slow and it is difficult to accumulate evidence for the relevance of the various histopathological risk factors for recurrence. A number of recent trials and retrospective analyses have suggested that some histopathological features suggestive of recurrence are more important than others. This has implications both in how testicular tumours are examined macroscopically and microscopically. New clinically important entities will also be described, as well as some pitfalls in the diagnosis of testicular tumours and how to avoid them.
    Pathology 06/2012; 44(5):419-26.
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    ABSTRACT: High-throughput profiling has generated massive amounts of data across basic, clinical and translational research fields. However, open source comprehensive web tools for analysing data obtained from different platforms and technologies are still lacking. To fill this gap and the unmet computational needs of ongoing research projects, we developed O-miner, a rapid, comprehensive, efficient web tool that covers all the steps required for the analysis of both transcriptomic and genomic data starting from raw image files through in-depth bioinformatics analysis and annotation to biological knowledge extraction. O-miner was developed from a biologist end-user perspective. Hence, it is as simple to use as possible within the confines of the complexity of the data being analysed. It provides a strong analytical suite able to overlay and harness large, complicated, raw and heterogeneous sets of profiles with biological/clinical data. Biologists can use O-miner to analyse and integrate different types of data and annotations to build knowledge of relevant altered mechanisms and pathways in order to identify and prioritize novel targets for further biological validation. Here we describe the analytical workflows currently available using O-miner and present examples of use. O-miner is freely available at www.o-miner.org.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2012; 40(Web Server issue):W560-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Broader functional annotation of single nucleotide variations is a valuable mean for prioritizing targets in further disease studies and large-scale genotyping projects. We originally developed SNPnexus to assess the potential significance of known and novel SNPs on the major transcriptome, proteome, regulatory and structural variation models in order to identify the phenotypically important variants. Being committed to providing continuous support to the scientific community, we have substantially improved SNPnexus over time by incorporating a broader range of variations such as insertions/deletions, block substitutions, IUPAC codes submission and region-based analysis, expanding the query size limit, and most importantly including additional categories for the assessment of functional impact. SNPnexus provides a comprehensive set of annotations for genomic variation data by characterizing related functional consequences at the transcriptome/proteome levels of seven major annotation systems with in-depth analysis of potential deleterious effects, inferring physical and cytogenetic mapping, reporting information on HapMap genotype/allele data, finding overlaps with potential regulatory elements, structural variations and conserved elements, and retrieving links with previously reported genetic disease studies. SNPnexus has a user-friendly web interface with an improved query structure, enhanced functional annotation categories and flexible output presentation making it practically useful for biologists. SNPnexus is freely available at http://www.snp-nexus.org.
    Nucleic Acids Research 04/2012; 40(Web Server issue):W65-70.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether Ki-67 immunoexpression in penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) has a prognostic value and correlates with lymph node metastasis, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and patient survival. 148 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded PSCC samples were tissue-microarrayed, including 97 usual-type SCCs, 17 basaloid, 15 pure verrucous carcinomas, 2 warty and 17 mixed-type tumours. All samples were immunostained for Ki-67 protein. HPV DNA was detected with INNO-LiPA assay. Follow-up data were available for 134 patients. Ki-67 was strongly expressed in 57/148 (38.5%) of PSCCs. Different cancer subtypes showed significant difference in Ki-67 expression (p<0.0001) with highest positivity in basaloid, 16/17 (94%), followed by usual type, 38/97 (39%) and lack of Ki-67 positive cases within verrucous tumours, 0/15. Ki-67 positively correlated with high-risk HPV (p<0.0001) and showed good specificity (84%) but low sensitivity (61%) for high-risk HPV detection. Ki-67 protein strongly positively correlated with tumour grade (p<0.0001) but not with stage (p=0.2193), or lymph node status (p=0.7366). Ki-67 showed no prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (HR=1.00, 95%, CI 0.99 to 1.02, p=0.54) or overall survival (HR=1.00, 95%, CI 0.99 to 1.02, p=0.45). High tumour stage, lymph node metastasis, high tumour grade and age at diagnosis were all independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Ki-67 is only a moderate surrogate marker for HPV infection in PSCC. It does not show prognostic value for cancer-specific survival and overall survival in PSCC.
    Journal of clinical pathology 03/2012; 65(6):534-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Many human cancers present as multifocal lesions. Understanding the clonal origin of multifocal cancers is of both etiological and clinical importance. The molecular basis of multifocal prostate cancer has previously been explored using a limited number of isolated markers and, although independent origin is widely believed, the clonal origin of multifocal prostate cancer is still debatable. We attempted to address clonal origin using a genome-wide copy-number analysis of individual cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) lesions. Using Affymetrix array 6.0 copy-number analysis, we compared the genomic changes detected in 48 individual cancer and HGPIN lesions, isolated from 18 clinically localized prostate cancer cases. Identical genomic copy-number changes, shared by all same-case cancer foci, were detected in all 13 informative cases displaying multiple tumor foci. In addition, individual HGPIN lesions in the two multifocal-HGPIN cases available shared identical genomic changes. Commonly known genomic alterations, including losses at 6q15, 8p21.3-8p21.2, 10q23.2-10q23.31, 16q22.3, 16q23.2-16q23.3 and 21q22.2-21q22.3 regions and gain of 8q24.3 were the most frequently detected changes in this study and each was detected in all same-case foci in at least one case. Microarray data were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in selected foci. Our high-resolution genome-wide copy-number data suggest that many multifocal cases derive from a single prostate cancer precursor clone and that this precursor may give rise to separate HGPIN foci and may further progress to multifocal invasive prostate cancer. These findings, which demonstrate the monoclonal origin of multifocal prostate cancer, should significantly enhance our understanding of prostate carcinogenesis.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 02/2012; 51(6):579-89.
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    ABSTRACT: Several S100 proteins are up-regulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most significant being S100P. We previously reported on S100PBP, a binding partner of S100P, that shows no homology to any described protein and whose functions are completely unknown. To determine S100PBP expression across human tissues and organs, immunohistochemistry was performed using both multiorgan- and in-house-constructed pancreatic tissue microarrays. To establish S100PBP functions, cell lines with either stably overexpressed or silenced S100PBP were generated and investigated using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and complementary functional assays. We show that S100PBP is differentially expressed in various healthy and tumor specimens, which is both cancer- and tissue-type dependent. In healthy pancreas, S100PBP is expressed in the nuclear/perinuclear region of both exocrine and endocrine compartments. In early precancerous lesions, S100PBP is translocated to the cytoplasm, whereas in PDAC and metastatic lesions, its expression is significantly diminished. The most pronounced phenotypic change after manipulation of S100PBP expression was seen in adhesion; this was significantly reduced after S100PBP up-regulation and increased after S100PBP silencing. Up-regulation or silencing of S100PBP also led to a concomitant change in the levels of the protease cathepsin Z, the silencing of which significantly reduced PDAC cell adhesion. We further demonstrate that the interaction of cathepsin Z with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-binding integrins, specifically αvβ5, mediates the changes seen in adhesion of PDAC cells.
    American Journal Of Pathology 02/2012; 180(4):1485-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Tumours lacking argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1) are auxotrophic for arginine and sensitive to amino-acid deprivation. Here, we investigated the role of ASS1 as a biomarker of response to the arginine-lowering agent, pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), in lymphoid malignancies. Although ASS1 protein was largely undetectable in normal and malignant lymphoid tissues, frequent hypermethylation of the ASS1 promoter was observed specifically in the latter. A good correlation was observed between ASS1 methylation, low ASS1 mRNA, absence of ASS1 protein expression and sensitivity to ADI-PEG20 in malignant lymphoid cell lines. We confirmed that the demethylating agent 5-Aza-dC reactivated ASS1 expression and rescued lymphoma cell lines from ADI-PEG20 cytotoxicity. ASS1-methylated cell lines exhibited autophagy and caspase-dependent apoptosis following treatment with ADI-PEG20. In addition, the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine triggered an accumulation of light chain 3-II protein and potentiated the apoptotic effect of ADI-PEG20 in malignant lymphoid cells and patient-derived tumour cells. Finally, a patient with an ASS1-methylated cutaneous T-cell lymphoma responded to compassionate-use ADI-PEG20. In summary, ASS1 promoter methylation contributes to arginine auxotrophy and represents a novel biomarker for evaluating the efficacy of arginine deprivation in patients with lymphoma.
    Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e342.
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