Putra University, Malaysia

Putrajaya, selangor, Malaysia

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Department of Chemistry
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Department of Civil Engineering
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Institute of Bioscience
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60°C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 09/2014; 113C:107-114.
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    ABSTRACT: Glyphosate is globally a widely used herbicide, yet there is little information on their toxicity to marine fishes. Java medaka, a small tropical fish native to coastal areas in several Southeast Asian countries, is viewed as a suitable candidate for toxicity test and thus was used for this study. Java medaka adults were cultured in the laboratory and the fertilized eggs of the F2 generation were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicide (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm) until they hatched. The survival and hatching rates of the embryos, changes in the heart rate and morphological impairments were recorded. Generally, survival and hatching percentage decreased as glyphosate concentration increased. Absence of pectoral fin(s) and cornea, permanently bent tail, irregular shaped abdomen, and cell disruption in the fin, head and abdomen are among the common teratogenic effects observed. Furthermore, risk factor also increased with the increased in glyphosate concentrations.
    Marine pollution bulletin 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional fuzzy logic controller is applicable when there are only two fuzzy inputs with usually one output. Complexity increases when there are more than one inputs and outputs making the system unrealizable. The ordinal structure model of fuzzy reasoning has an advantage of managing high-dimensional problem with multiple input and output variables ensuring the interpretability of the rule set. This is achieved by giving an associated weight to each rule in the defuzzification process. In this work, a methodology to design an ordinal fuzzy logic controller with application for obstacle avoidance of Khepera mobile robot is presented. The implementation will show that ordinal structure fuzzy is easier to design with highly interpretable rules compared to conventional fuzzy controller. In order to achieve high accuracy, a specially tailored Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach for reinforcement learning has been proposed to optimize the ordinal structure fuzzy controller. Simulation results demonstrated improved obstacle avoidance performance in comparison with conventional fuzzy controllers. Comparison of direct and incremental GA for optimization of the controller is also presented.
    Applied Soft Computing 03/2014; 11(2):1631–1637.


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International Journal of Business and Management. 01/2009;
Global Journal of Health Science. 01/2010;

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