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- SourceAvailable from: Miranda Yeoh[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim: To identify the factors associated with depression among elderly patients attending a primary health care clinic in Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on patients aged 60 years and above in Klinik Kesi-hatan Butterworth, Seberang Perai Utara, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia from April to September 1999. The Geriatric Depression Scale questionnaire was used as a screening instrument. Results: The response rate was 99.0%. A total of 18% of the patients were found to have depression. The associated factors were females (odds ratio (OR) = 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37–6.02), those who were unmarried (OR = 3.46, 95% CI = 1.66–7.21), without formal education (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.97–21.48), low total family income (OR = 7.97, 95% CI = 2.71–23.46) and urban residence (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.09–4.58). Conclusion: Depression is very common among the elderly. As this is an important problem in primary care practice, primary care doctors should be aware of this problem so that early detection and management can be implemented.
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ABSTRACT: The calcium oxide catalysts derived from waste obtuse horn shells were utilized in the transesterification of palm oil into biodiesel. This environment-friendly catalyst is thermally activated at 800 °C for 3 h. The resulting CaO catalyst was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD-CO2), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns of calcined catalyst showed intense peaks of calcium oxide, consistent with XRF results that revealed calcium is the major element present in the obtuse horn shells. High calcination temperature (800 °C) tended to promote agglomeration of fine crystals, resulted in a smaller surface area (0.07 m2/g) as examined by BET. Catalytic activities in the transesterification process had been investigated using one-variable-at-a-time technique. The optimum palm oil conversion was 86.75% under reaction conditions of 6 h, 5 wt.% of catalyst amount and methanol to oil ratio of 12:1. Reusability of this waste shell derived catalyst was examined and results showed that the prepared catalysts are able to be reused up to 3 times with conversion of more than 70% after the third cycles. Although the reusability may not be excellent at the moment, it is still in the exploratory study. More efforts were done to improve its properties and stability.Energy Conversion and Management 03/2015; 93. DOI:10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.067
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we suggest a numerical method based upon hybrid of Chebyshev wavelets and finite difference methods for solving well-known nonlinear initial-value problems of Lane-Emden type. The useful properties of the Chebyshev wavelets and finite difference method are utilized to reduce the computation of the problem to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. Making a comparison among the obtained results using the present method with those ones reported in literature by some other well-known methods confirms the accuracy and computational efficiency of the present technique.New Astronomy 12/2014; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.newast.2014.06.008
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