Putra University, Malaysia

Putrajaya, selangor, Malaysia

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Department of Chemistry
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Department of Civil Engineering
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Institute of Bioscience
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    ABSTRACT: The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60°C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 09/2014; 113C:107-114.
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    ABSTRACT: Context Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a security vulnerability that affects web applications. It occurs due to improper or lack of sanitization of user inputs. The security vulnerability caused many problems for users and server applications. Objective To conduct a systematic literature review on the studies done on XSS vulnerabilities and attacks. Method We followed the standard guidelines for systematic literature review as documented by Barbara Kitchenham and reviewed a total of 115 studies related to cross-site scripting from various journals and conference proceedings. Results Research on XSS is still very active with publications across many conference proceedings and journals. Attack prevention and vulnerability detection are the areas focused on by most of the studies. Dynamic analysis techniques form the majority among the solutions proposed by the various studies. The type of XSS addressed the most is reflected XSS. Conclusion XSS still remains a big problem for web applications, despite the bulk of solutions provided so far. There is no single solution that can effectively mitigate XSS attacks. More research is need in the area of vulnerability removal from the source code of the applications before deployment.
    Information and Software Technology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Concurrent Engineering (CE) is regarded as a systematic design approach which integrates concurrent design of product with the related processes which is able to accomplish product that can be produced at lower cost, shorter time and with higher quality and this achievement was termed as cost, time and quality (CTQ) improvement. Since its establishment, CE philosophy was well implemented in product development with traditional materials such as metals but up to date, the work on CE in composite product development is still limited. Hence, a review on the implementation of Concurrent Engineering (CE) approach in the development of composite products is presented in this paper which includes review of various studies of CE techniques in composite product development. In addition, the relationship between CE and Pugh total design method is discussed in the context of composite design. Moreover, publications related to materials selection, life cycle analysis and sustainability issues of composite materials are also reviewed whereby a section is devoted to highlight previous work on materials selection using Analytical Hierarchy Process method. It was observed that materials selection of composite materials is a very important activity as far as CE in composite product development. The use of various techniques and computer aided materials selection tools such as Analytical Hierarchy Process has helped designers to select the most optimum composite materials for engineering components. Furthermore, based on current trends in composites product development, the role of CE is expected to be more crucial to assist composites designers in achieving the design requirements from various stakeholders effectively and efficiently considering the expanding range of composite materials availability as well as realizing new potential for biocomposites applications through introduction of innovative alternative problem solving methods as part of the CE family.
    Materials and Design 06/2014; 58:161–167.


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