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    ABSTRACT: Five combinations of three ratios (PS9-sPS1, PS7-sPS3 and PS6-sPS4) were prepared with polysaccharide (PS) and sulfated polysaccharide (sPS). The antiviral activities of these compounds were subsequently compared in vitro using the MTT assay, observation of the virus structure and immunofluorescence. The results demonstrated that SP9-sCP1, CP7-sCA3, EP7-sAP3, CA9-sEP1 and EP7-sCA3 presented higher activities, and SP9-sCP1 displayed the highest virus inhibition rate and clearly killed the virus and inhibited viral antigen expression. In an in vivo test, 28-day-old chickens were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and were administered the five drug combinations. On day 14 after the challenge, the morbidity, mortality and cure rate in each group were calculated. The results indicated that SP9-sCP1 presented the lowest morbidity and mortality and the highest cure rate. These results indicate that Solomonseal polysaccharide and sulfated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide synergistically resist NDV. Moreover, SP9-sCP1 had the highest efficacy and may be used as a new antiviral drug.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117916. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117916
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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 68 (EV-D68) was associated with mild to severe respiratory infections. In the last 4 years, circulation of different EV-D68 strains has been documented worldwide. In this study, the phylogenetic characterization of nine EV-D68 strains identified in patients in the 2010-2012 period and 12 additional EV-D68 Italian strains previously identified in 2008 in Italy was described. From January 2010 to December 2012, a total of 889 respiratory specimens from 588 patients stayed or visited at the Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo were positive for HRV or HEV. Extracted nucleic acids were amplified by one-step RT-PCR with primer specific for VP1 region of EV-D68 and purified positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Overall, 9/3736 (0.24%) patients were EV-D68 positive. Of these, 7/9 (77.8%) were pediatric and two (22.2%) were adults. Five out of seven (71.4%) pediatric patients had lower respiratory tract infection with oxygen saturation <94%. Four cases were detected from August through October 2010, while five other cases from September through December 2012. The Italian EV-D68 strains in 2008 belonged to clade A (n = 5) and clade C (n = 7). In 2010 all the Italian strains belonged to clade A (n = 4) and in 2012, four Italian strains belonged to clade B and one to clade A. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence supporting a role of EV-D68 in severe respiratory infection in pediatric patients. In addition, all the three EV-D68 clades circulating worldwide were identified in Italy in a 5-year period of time. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 09/2014; 86(9). DOI:10.1002/jmv.23821
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic performance of the widely-used Cervista HPV HR test was compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test in a Dutch population-based cervical cancer screening program. In 900 scrapings of women with normal cytomorphology, specificity was 90% (95%CI: 87.84-91.87) for the Cervista HPV HR test and 96% (95%CI: 94.76-97.37) for the HC2 test with 93% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.5, p<0.001). The sensitivity for CIN2+ using 65 scrapings of women with histological-confirmed CIN2+ was 91% (95%CI: 80.97-96.51) for the Cervista HPV HR test and 92% (95%CI: 82.94-97.43) for the HC2 test with 95% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.7, p<0.001). Fifty-seven of 60 HC2 negative/Cervista positive cases tested HPV-negative with PCR-based HPV assays; of these cases 56% were defined as Cervista triple-positive with FOZ values in all 3 mixes higher than the second cut-off of 1.93 (as set by manufacturer). By setting this cut-off at 5.0, specificity improved significantly without affecting sensitivity. External validation of this new cut-off at 5.0 in triple-positive scrapings of women selected from the SHENCCASTII database revealed that 22/24 histological normal cases now tested HPV-negative in the Cervista HPV HR test, while CIN2+ lesions remained HPV-positive. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the Cervista HPV HR test (n = 510) showed a concordance of 92% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.83 and κ = 0.84, p<0.001) and inter-laboratory agreement of the Cervista HPV HR test was 90% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.80 and κ = 0.85, p<0.001). In conclusion, the specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test could be improved significantly by increasing the second cut-off from 1.93 to 5.0, without affecting the sensitivity of the test in a population-based screening setting.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101930. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101930

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Epilepsy & Behavior 07/2014; 37C:87-90. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.06.012
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