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    Minerva anestesiologica 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate ultrasonographic features of the liver and biliary tree, including the presence of the triangular cord, in infants with biliary atresia and to analyze the correspondence between hepatic echostructure and histological aspects of the liver.Materials and Methods: 35 consecutive infants (19 males) with documented diagnosis of biliary atresia were included. Ultrasonography evaluation, performed at a mean age of 63.1 ± 34.9 days, was focused on the extrahepatic bile ducts, characteristics of the gallbladder and liver, and the presence of the triangular cord. Liver biopsies were examined with particular regard to the presence and severity of fibrosis.Results: On ultrasound, the gallbladder was not seen in 11 (31 %) cases, while in the remaining 24 patients the gallbladder was regular in 6 patients and irregular in 18 cases. The triangular cord was identified in 9 (26 %) of 35 patients. In 21 patients the liver echostructure appeared normal, while in 14 infants the liver parenchyma was more echogenic and coarse than normal. Liver biopsy showed signs of cirrhosis or fibrosis in all cases, including patients with a normal hepatic echostructure.Conclusion: Although the triangular cord was visualized in one-fourth of the infants with biliary atresia, abnormalities of the gallbladder on ultrasound (absence or abnormalities of length/shape) were detected in 83 % of the patients. Therefore, ultrasound evaluation of the liver and biliary tree plays an important role in suspecting biliary atresia. On the other hand, a low correspondence between liver echostructure aspects and the presence and severity of fibrosis at liver biopsy was identified. Therefore, severe liver disease in infants with biliary atresia cannot be excluded only on the basis of ultrasound findings.
    Ultraschall in der Medizin 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito-urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.
    Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia: organo ufficiale [di] Società italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica / Associazione ricerche in urologia 04/2013; 85(1):1-7.

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    Napoli, Italy
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Obesity Research & Clinical Practice 01/2012; 6(3):e189–e196.
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American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2012; 158A(4):832-5.
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