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    ABSTRACT: Because every spike of a neuron is determined by input signals, a train of spikes may contain information about the dynamics of unobserved neurons. A state-space method based on the leaky integrate-and-fire model, describing neuronal transformation from input signals to a spike train has been proposed for tracking input parameters represented by their mean and fluctuation [11]. In the present paper, we propose to make the estimation more realistic by adopting an LIF model augmented with an adaptive moving threshold. Moreover, because the direct state-space method is computationally infeasible for a data set comprising thousands of spikes, we further develop a practical method for transforming instantaneous firing characteristics back to input parameters. The instantaneous firing characteristics, represented by the firing rate and non-Poisson irregularity, can be estimated using a computationally feasible algorithm. We applied our proposed methods to synthetic data to clarify that they perform well.
    Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering 02/2014; 11(1):49-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Li2CuO2 substituted by various cations, such as Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Ti, was examined to decrease the irreversible capacity of unsubstituted one. Among several kinds of cations tested, Ni and Co were found to be effective in improving the irreversible capacity. Li2Cu0.7Ni0.3O2 exhibited a reversible capacity of about 150 mAh/g, while the unsubstituted one exhibited a capacity of only about 100 mAh/g. The structural changes in the Cu-based oxides that occurred during the electrochemical reaction were investigated with ex-situ XRD measurements. The results indicated that the structural transformation behavior changed as a result of the cation substitution.
    Solid State Ionics 01/2014; 262:115–119.
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) became popular for the treatment of large common bile-duct stones (CBDS), and its feasibility has been reported in comparison to endoscopic sphincterotomy. However, the comparison between EPLBD and endoscopic papillary regular-balloon dilation (EPBD) has not been reported. In the present study, the efficacy and complications of EPLBD were compared with those of EPBD. We retrospectively assessed 334 consecutive patients with CBDS of any size that were treated by either EPLBD or EPBD between January 2008 and December 2012. In cases with large CBDS (>10 mm), EPLBD and EPBD had similar results in terms of the success rate of stone removal in the first (65% vs. 84%) and total attempts (100% vs. 95%), use of mechanical lithotripter (64% vs. 80%), and procedure time (48.0 ± 17.8 min vs. 44.1 ± 17.1 min). The necessity for crushing stones with a mechanical lithotripter was significantly decreased in EPLBD compared to EPBD (25% vs. 80%). In all cases with CBDS, there was no significant difference in complication rates between EPLBD and EPBD (3.3% vs. 4.7%). Compared to EPBD, EPLBD appears safe and effective for removing large CBDS and decreases the necessity of lithotripsy.
    Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences. 10/2013;

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Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan 01/2001; 44:1-18.
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Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2005; 103(2):320-7.
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