135
157.46
1.17
219

Publication History View all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban rail systems could be reduced by approximately 25–35% through the implementation of energy-optimised timetables, energy-efficient driving strategies, improved control of comfort functions in vehicles and wayside energy storage devices.
    Energy Conversion and Management 01/2014; 80:509–524.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to investigate the difference between Han Chinese and Caucasians on various parameters measured from responses to transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS). Sixteen subjects were studied in each group. A circular coil at the vertex was used for stimulation, whilst recording surface electromyograms from right first dorsal interosseous. In the passive state, motor-evoked potential (MEP) threshold, MEP recruitment, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation were measured. The MEP threshold, recruitment and silent period were also measured in the active state. Chinese subjects showed significantly higher passive thresholds (P < 0.005), less inhibition of the motor response (SICI, P < 0.0005) and a shorter silent period (P < 0.05). Differences in SICI appeared to be a consequence of the differences in passive threshold and were not seen when active threshold was used to determine the conditioning stimulus intensity. Differences in silent period may also reflect differences in cortical excitability rather than inhibitory processes, as they were not seen when the silent-period duration was expressed as a function of MEP size, rather than TMS intensity. There appears to be a significant difference in some TMS parameters between Han Chinese and Caucasian subjects. This may reflect an underlying difference in cortical excitability.
    Experimental Brain Research 11/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Press-fit acetabular shells are subject to compressive loading conditions upon insertion during surgery. These conditions may result in deformation of the shell, potentially adversely affecting the performance of any liner fitted within it. This technical note describes the method used to measure acetabular shell deformation in a cadaver study using an optical GOM ATOS Triple Scan system. Six custom-made titanium acetabular shells were scanned prior to and immediately following insertion into three cadavers (one shell per acetabulum). A three-dimensional colour map was created for each shell, and cross sections were taken at the rim to determine the maximum diametrical deformation. Values of between 30 and 150 µm were recorded, with the results suggesting a size-dependent response.
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine. 10/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the major challenges of hard tissue engineering research focuses on the development of scaffolds that can match the mechanical properties of the host bone and resorb at the same rate as the bone is repaired. The aim of this work was the synthesis and characterization of a resorbable phosphate glass, as well as its application for the fabrication of three dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone regeneration. The glass microstructure and behaviour upon heating were analysed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy. The glass solubility was investigated according to relevant ISO standards using distilled water, simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl as testing media. The glass underwent progressive dissolution over time in all three media but the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like layer was also observed on the samples soaked in SBF and Tris-HCl, which demonstrated the bioactivity of the material. The glass powder was used to fabricate 3-D macroporous bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds by adopting polyethylene particles as pore formers: during thermal treatment, the polymer additive was removed and the sintering of glass particles was allowed. The obtained scaffolds exhibited high porosity (87 vol.%) and compressive strength around 1.5 MPa. After soaking for 4 months in SBF, the scaffolds mass loss was 76 wt.% and the pH of the solution did not exceed the 7.55 value, thereby remaining in a physiological range. The produced scaffolds, being resorbable, bioactive, architecturally similar to trabecular bone and exhibiting interesting mechanical properties, can be proposed as promising candidates for bone repair applications.
    Journal of Biomaterials Applications 09/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The invention of the atomic force microscope led directly to the possibility of carrying out nanomechanical tests with forces below the nanonewton and the ability to test nanomaterials and single molecules. As a result there is a pressing need for accurate and traceable force calibration of AFM measurements that is not satisfactorily met by existing calibration methods. Here we present a force reference device that makes it possible to calibrate the normal stiffness of typical AFM microcantilevers down to 90 pN nm(-1) with very high accuracy and repeatability and describe how it can be calibrated traceably to the International System of Units via the ampere and the metre, avoiding in that way the difficulties associated with traceability to the SI kilogram. We estimate the total uncertainty associated with cantilever calibration including traceability to be better than 3.5%, thus still offering room for future improvement.
    Nanotechnology 08/2013; 24(33):335706.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bovine serum is the lubricant recommended by several international standards for the wear testing of orthopaedic biomaterials; however, there are issues over its use due to batch variation, degradation, cost and safety. For these reasons, alternative lubricants were investigated. A 50-station Super-CTPOD (circularly translating pin-on-disc) wear test rig was used, which applied multidirectional motion to ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene test pins rubbing against cobalt chromium discs. Thirteen possible alternative lubricants were tested. The use of soy protein as a lubricant gave statistically higher wear, while soya oil, olive oil, Channel Island milk, whole milk, whey, wheatgerm oil, 11 mg/mL egg white, albumin/globulin mix and albumin/globulin/chondroitin sulphate mix all gave statistically lower wear than bovine serum. The lubricants giving the closest wear results to bovine serum were 20 and 40 mg/mL egg white solutions. A light absorbance assay found that these egg white solutions suffered from a high degradation rate that increased with increasing protein content. While egg white solutions offer the best alternative lubricant to bovine serum due to the wear volumes produced, cost-effectiveness and safety of handling, protein degradation will still occur, leading to the need for regular lubricant replacement. Of the lubricants tested in this study, none were found to be superior to bovine serum.
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 04/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of surface features on as-ground gears and the influence of BALINIT® C and Nb–S coatings on the initiation of micro-pitting damage have been examined in case-carburised and tempered S156 steel helical gears subjected to contact fatigue using back-to-back gear testing. The initiation of micro-pitting damage has been studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy examination. It has been observed that micro-cracks tend to initiate against the sliding direction preferentially from micro-valleys on the surface of as-ground gears, particularly when the depth of micro-valley is favourably oriented at an angle against the sliding direction. It has been found that the micro-pitting damage is drastically reduced in both coated gears. In BALINIT® C coated gears, the micro-scale surface irregularities are removed by a wear process resulting in a polished surface of the gear flank below the pitch diameter which is attributed to the effect of hard BALINIT® C coating. However, there is region of interface between the polished and unpolished regions of gear flank where there is small scale initiation of micro-pitting due to the absence of BALINIT® C coating at micro-valleys. In Nb–S coated gears, the coating tends to penetrate and fill-up the micro-valleys on as-ground surface modifying the gear flank surface. Hence, the micro-pits tend to initiate only at some micro-valley sites where the Nb–S coating is locally removed during running. This study shows that, both BALINIT® C and Nb–S coated gears show enhanced resistance to micro-pitting damage by removing localised stress concentration at micro-valleys present on as-ground gears.
    Wear 01/2013; 297(s 1–2):878–884.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aims of this piece of work were to: 1) record the background concentrations of blood chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations in a large group of subjects; 2) to compare blood/serum Cr and Co concentrations with retrieved metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings; 3) to examine the distribution of Co and Cr in the serum and whole blood of patients with MoM hip arthroplasties; and 4) to further understand the partitioning of metal ions between the serum and whole blood fractions. A total of 3042 blood samples donated to the local transfusion centre were analysed to record Co and Cr concentrations. Also, 91 hip resurfacing devices from patients who had given pre-revision blood/serum samples for metal ion analysis underwent volumetric wear assessment using a coordinate measuring machine. Linear regression analysis was carried out and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the reliability of metal ions to identify abnormally wearing implants. The relationship between serum and whole blood concentrations of Cr and Co in 1048 patients was analysed using Bland-Altman charts. This relationship was further investigated in an in vitro study during which human blood was spiked with trivalent and hexavalent Cr, the serum then separated and the fractions analysed. Only one patient in the transfusion group was found to have a blood Co > 2 µg/l. Blood/Serum Cr and Co concentrations were reliable indicators of abnormal wear. Blood Co appeared to be the most useful clinical test, with a concentration of 4.5 µg/l showing sensitivity and specificity for the detection of abnormal wear of 94% and 95%, respectively. Generated metal ions tended to fill the serum compartment preferentially in vivo and this was replicated in the in vitro study when blood was spiked with trivalent Cr and bivalent Co. Blood/serum metal ion concentrations are reliable indicators of abnormal wear processes. Important differences exist however between elements and the blood fraction under study. Future guidelines must take these differences into account.
    Bone & joint research. 01/2013; 2(5):84-95.
  • The Journal of hand surgery, European volume. 12/2012;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With greater numbers of primary knee replacements now performed in younger patients there is a demand for improved performance. Surface roughness of the femoral component has been proposed as a causative mechanism for premature prosthesis failure. Nineteen retrieved total knee replacements were analysed using a non-contacting profilometer to measure the femoral component surface roughness. The Hood technique was used to analyse the wear and surface damage of the matching ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial components. All femoral components were shown to be up to 11× rougher after their time in vivo while 95 % showed a change in skewness, further indicating wear. This increase in roughness occurred relatively soon after implantation (within 1 year) and remained unchanged thereafter. Mostly, this roughness was more apparent on the lateral condyle than the medial. This increased femoral surface roughness likely led to damage of the UHMWPE tibial component and increased Hood scores.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 11/2012;
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.