[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The full-length cDNA of four Ofapn aminopeptidases were cloned and sequenced from susceptible and resistant Ostrinia furnacalis strains. Four sequences were identified as APN because they shared the common structural features with APN from Lepidoptera, including the signal peptide, GPI anchor signal, the zinc binding/gluzincin motif HEX2HX18E and the gluzincin aminopeptidase motif GAMEN. Compared with APN sequences from the susceptible strain, there were 9, 5, 10 and 12 amino acid variations in the deduced protein sequences from the resistant strain. There were also differences in mRNA expression of the four Ofapn genes between resistant and susceptible O. furnacalis strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three acidophilic actinobacteria, isolates LSCA2, FGG8 and HSCA14(T), recovered from spruce litter were examined using a polyphasic approach. Chemotaxonomic and morphological properties of the isolates were found to be consistent with their classification in the genus Streptacidiphilus. The isolates were shown to have identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and were most closely related to Streptacidiphilus neutrinimicus DSM 41755(T) (99.9 % similarity). However, DNA:DNA relatedness between isolate HSCA14(T) and the type strain of S. neutrinimicus was found to be low at 44.0 (±14.1) %. A combination of phenotypic features, including degradative and nutritional characteristics were shown to distinguish the isolates from their nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Data from this study show that the isolates form a novel species in the genus for which the name S. hamsterleyensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HSCA 14(T) (=DSM 45900(T) = KACC 17456(T) = NCIMB 14865(T)).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low cost, simple approaches leading to enhanced numbers of viable, mature corals on reefs are prerequisite to active reef rehabilitation at even modest spatial scales. Mass culture of coral larvae to settlement, utilising improved knowledge of major coral spawning events, promises to be relatively straightforward, but very significant mortality in the early post-settlement period remains a major hurdle. This study was conducted to examine the effect of herbivore exclusion on the survival of 6 week old coral spat of Acropora tenuis (Dana, 1846) reared ex situ at a site in north-western Philippines. Coral spat were placed on the reef approximately 6 weeks after settlement in three treatments, caged, open-sided cage and no cage at two depths (4 m and 9 m). Mean survival of coral spat was significantly higher at the deep sites compared to the shallow sites. Among treatments, survival was significantly lower in the uncaged treatment (4.7% ± 2.6% and 10.5% ± 4.5%, mean ± SE in shallow and deep respectively) compared to the open-sided cage (18.6% ± 5.0% and 22.5% ± 7.1%) and fully caged treatment (17.0% ± 4.5% and 33.0% ± 6.0%) after 3 months. The results indicate that removal of coral spat by grazers may have reduced survival in the uncaged treatment, although the fact that survivorship was not significantly reduced in the open-sided cage treatments suggests that the presence of the cage also had some effect on survival. It is possible that the open-sided cage prevented access by larger fish that may have actively removed coral spat or that shading provided by the cage enhanced spat survival. Further research is needed to see if survivorship in cages decreases at a later stage due to overgrowth by other biota and whether survivorship is enhanced if spat are settled on more complex surfaces that provide refuge from grazers. This study demonstrates that using cages to exclude herbivores and corallivores and/or to provide shading may be beneficial to survival during the early stages when rearing corals in situ for reef rehabilitation.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 08/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The taxonomic position of three acidophilic actinobacteria, strains FGG38, FGG39 and FSCA67(T), isolated from the fermentation litter layer of a spruce forest soil was established using a polyphasic approach. The strains were shown to have chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with their classification in the genus Streptacidiphilus and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptacidiphilus 16S rRNA gene tree being most closely related to Streptacidiphilus albus DSM 41753(T) (99.4 % similarity). DNA:DNA relatedness data showed that isolate FSCA67(T) and the type strain of S. albus belonged to markedly distinct genomic species. The isolates had many phenotypic properties in common and were distinguished readily from their closest phylogenetic neighbours in the Streptacidiphilus gene tree using a broad range of these features. Based on the combined genotypic and phenotypic data the three isolates are considered to represent a new Streptacidiphilus species. The name Streptacidiphilus durhamensis sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon with isolate FSCA67(T) (=DSM 45796(T) = KACC 17154(T) = NCIMB 14829(T)) as the type strain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The aim of this study was to investigate spatial variation in risk of hospitalization in childhood pneumonia and empyema in the North of England and associated risk factors. Data on childhood (0-14 years) hospital admissions with a diagnosis pneumonia or empyema were linked to postcode districts. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were used to evaluate spatial variation and the relevance of specific spatial covariates in an area-based study using postcode as the areal unit. There was a sixfold variation in the risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia across the study region. Variation in risk was associated with material deprivation, Child Well-being Index (CWI) health domain score, number of children requiring local authority support, and distance to hospital. No significant spatial variation in risk for empyema was found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimsDespite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug-seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum.Methods
Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability.Key ResultsInterspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14.Conclusions
Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T. pratense is reduced.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a great deal is known about the deposition of fluoride on vegetation, and the hazards associated with uptake by grazing herbivores, little is known about what happens to the concentration of fluoride in vegetation and soil at polluted sites once deposition ceases. The closure of Anglesey Aluminium Metals Ltd smelter, in September 2009, provided a unique opportunity to study fluoride loading once deposition stopped. Fluoride was monitored in plants and soil within 1 km of the former emission source. Fluoride concentrations in a range of plant material had decreased to background levels of 10 mg F kg(-1) after 36 weeks. Concentrations of fluoride in mineral-rich soils decreased steadily demonstrating their limited potential to act as contaminating sources of fluoride for forage uptake. There were significant differences in the rate of decline of fluoride concentrations between plant species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy is increasingly used compared with a standard laparoscopic technique, but it remains uncertain whether potential benefits offset higher costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of robotic prostatectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a care pathway description and model-based cost-utility analysis. We studied men with localised prostate cancer able to undergo either robotic or laparoscopic prostatectomy for cure. We used data from a meta-analysis, other published literature, and costs from the UK National Health Service and commercial sources. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Care received by men for 10 yr following radical prostatectomy was modelled. Clinical events, their effect on quality of life, and associated costs were synthesised assuming 200 procedures were performed annually. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Over 10 yr, robotic prostatectomy was on average (95% confidence interval [CI]) £1412 (€1595) (£1304 [€1473] to £1516 [€1713]) more costly than laparoscopic prostatectomy but more effective with mean (95% CI) gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of 0.08 (0.01-0.15). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was £18 329 (€20 708) with an 80% probability that robotic prostatectomy was cost effective at a threshold of £30 000 (€33 894)/QALY. The ICER was sensitive to the throughput of cases and the relative positive margin rate favouring robotic prostatectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Higher costs of robotic prostatectomy may be offset by modest health gain resulting from lower risk of early harms and positive margin, provided >150 cases are performed each year. Considerable uncertainty persists in the absence of directly comparative randomised data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Actinomycetes growing on acidified starch-casein agar seeded with suspensions of litter and mineral soil from a spruce forest were provisionally assigned to the genus Nocardia based upon colonial properties. Representative isolates were found to grow optimally at pH 5.5, have chemotaxonomic and morphological features consistent with their assignment to the genus Nocardia and formed two closely related subclades in the Nocardia 16S rRNA gene tree. DNA:DNA relatedness assays showed that representatives of the subclades belong to a single genomic species. The isolates were distantly associated with their nearest phylogenetic neighbour, the type strain of Nocardia kruczakiae, and were distinguished readily from the latter based on phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data it is proposed that the isolates merit recognition as a new species, Nocardia aciditolerans sp. nov. The type strain is isolate CSCA68(T) (=KACC 17155(T) = NCIMB 14829(T) = DSM 45801(T)).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polyphasic analysis was carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of four marine actinomycete strains that share a phylogenetic relationship and phenotypic characteristics with the genus Salinispora. These strains formed a distinct lineage within the Salinispora 16S rRNA and gyrB trees and were found to possess a range of phenotypic properties and DNA:DNA hybridization values that distinguished them from the type strains of the two validly named species in this genus, Salinispora tropica (CNB-440(T), ATCC BAA-916(T)) and Salinispora arenicola (CNH-643(T), ATCC BAA-917(T)). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data support this conclusion. It is proposed that the strains be designated as Salinispora pacifica sp. nov., the type strain of which is CNR-114(T) (DSMZ YYYYT = KACC 17160(T)).
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 01/2013;
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.