[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The provision of national planning guidance from central government to local authorities and property developers to shape urban land-use policy and practice has been a feature of the planning system in Britain since the 1940s. This guidance, however, has not been released in any consistent form and has occasionally been subject to criticism by commentators. While the original role of national planning advice was to provide strategic direction, central government has modified its planning remit and has recently utilised its land-use obligation to set parameters on detailed planning control and policy matters at the local level. The nature of central government intervention in local land-use matters has therefore changed over time. The current form of national advice in England and Wales is contained within the series of Planning Policy Guidance Notes (PPGs). This research paper considers the role and significance of PPGs in planning practice at the local district authority level of policy-making and determination, particularly in relation to the introduction of recent planning legislation. It will show that the government's use of PPGs to provide strategic national direction in planning has been widely accepted by professional officers throughout the country. But there still remains uncertainty over the government's reliance on PPGs to intervene in detailed local planning issues.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development strategies as articulated by international financial institutions and bilateral donors appear to omit consideration of urban economies as drivers of economic growth in developing and transition economies. This paper highlights that omission and argues that donor assistance programmes and host government policies should be oriented toward strengthening urban economies by fostering linkages among industrial firms. A study of industrial firms in Yerevan, Armenia seems to indicate linkages among Yerevan′s industrial firms are beginning to form and are associated with growth in the Armenian economy. Policies to strengthen and deepen those linkages should be encouraged.
Progress in Development Studies 01/2006; 6(3):224-241.