National Institute on Aging

Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology (LMG)
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Laboratory of Clinical Investigation (LCI)
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Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology (LMBI)
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Publication History View all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults <40 years of age, most studies found no relationship between adiposity and occipital or parietal GM volumes, whereas findings for temporal lobe were mixed. In middle-aged and aged adults, a majority of studies found that higher adiposity is associated with parietal and temporal GM atrophy, whereas results for precuneus, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus were mixed. Higher adiposity had no clear association with global or regional WM in any age group. We conclude that higher adiposity may be associated with frontal GM atrophy across all ages and parietal and temporal GM atrophy in middle and old age.
    Ageing research reviews 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Accelerometers have emerged as a useful tool for measuring free-living physical activity in epidemiological studies. Validity of activity estimates depends on the assumption that measurements are equivalent for males and females while performing activities of the same intensity. The primary purpose of this study was to compare accelerometer count values in males and females undergoing a standardized 6-minute walk test. Methods: The study population was older adults (78.6 ± 4.1 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study (N = 319). Participants performed a 6-minute walk test at a self-selected fast pace while wearing an ActiGraph GT3X at the hip. Vertical axis counts·s-1 was the primary outcome. Covariates included walking speed, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, femur length, and step length. Results: On average, males walked 7.2% faster than females (1.31 vs. 1.22 m·s-1, P < .001) and had 32.3% greater vertical axis counts·s-1 (54.6 vs. 39.4 counts·s-1, P < .001). Accounting for walking speed reduced the sex difference to 19.2% and accounting for step length further reduced the difference to 13.4% (P < .001). Conclusion: Vertical axis counts·s-1 were disproportionally greater in males even after adjustment for walking speed. This difference could confound free-living activity estimates.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 03/2014; 11(3):626-37.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates.
    American journal of preventive medicine 03/2014; 46(3 Suppl 1):S87-97.


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    Baltimore, Maryland, United States
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Top publications last week by downloads

Nature Cell Biology 07/2007; 9(6):625-35.
NeuroMolecular Medicine 02/2008; 10(2):128-40.

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