National Institute on Aging

Baltimore, Maryland, United States

Departments View all

Laboratory of Clinical Investigation (LCI)
514
Total Impact Points
14
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Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology (LMG)
1,703
Total Impact Points
13
Members
Laboratory of Neurosciences (LNS)
2,769
Total Impact Points
11
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Basic research on neurocognitive aging has traditionally adopted a reductionist approach in the search for the basis of cognitive preservation versus decline. However, increasing evidence suggests that a network level understanding of the brain can provide additional novel insight into the structural and functional organization from which complex behavior and dysfunction emerge. Using graph theory as a mathematical framework to characterize neural networks, recent data suggest that alterations in structural and functional networks may contribute to individual differences in cognitive phenotypes in advanced aging. This paper reviews literature that defines network changes in healthy and pathological aging phenotypes, while highlighting the substantial overlap in key features and patterns observed across aging phenotypes. Consistent with current efforts in this area, here we outline one analytic strategy that attempts to quantify graph theory metrics more precisely, with the goal of improving diagnostic sensitivity and predictive accuracy for differential trajectories in neurocognitive aging. Ultimately, such an approach may yield useful measures for gauging the efficacy of potential preventative interventions and disease modifying treatments early in the course of aging.
    Ageing research reviews 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults <40 years of age, most studies found no relationship between adiposity and occipital or parietal GM volumes, whereas findings for temporal lobe were mixed. In middle-aged and aged adults, a majority of studies found that higher adiposity is associated with parietal and temporal GM atrophy, whereas results for precuneus, posterior cingulate, and hippocampus were mixed. Higher adiposity had no clear association with global or regional WM in any age group. We conclude that higher adiposity may be associated with frontal GM atrophy across all ages and parietal and temporal GM atrophy in middle and old age.
    Ageing research reviews 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Accelerometers have emerged as a useful tool for measuring free-living physical activity in epidemiological studies. Validity of activity estimates depends on the assumption that measurements are equivalent for males and females while performing activities of the same intensity. The primary purpose of this study was to compare accelerometer count values in males and females undergoing a standardized 6-minute walk test. Methods: The study population was older adults (78.6 ± 4.1 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study (N = 319). Participants performed a 6-minute walk test at a self-selected fast pace while wearing an ActiGraph GT3X at the hip. Vertical axis counts·s-1 was the primary outcome. Covariates included walking speed, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, femur length, and step length. Results: On average, males walked 7.2% faster than females (1.31 vs. 1.22 m·s-1, P < .001) and had 32.3% greater vertical axis counts·s-1 (54.6 vs. 39.4 counts·s-1, P < .001). Accounting for walking speed reduced the sex difference to 19.2% and accounting for step length further reduced the difference to 13.4% (P < .001). Conclusion: Vertical axis counts·s-1 were disproportionally greater in males even after adjustment for walking speed. This difference could confound free-living activity estimates.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 03/2014; 11(3):626-37.

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    Baltimore, Maryland, United States
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NeuroMolecular Medicine 02/2008; 10(2):128-40.
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The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 11/1996; 100(4 Pt 1):1949-67.
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