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    ABSTRACT: Between January 2011 and April 2012, the Southeast Crater (SEC) on Mount Etna was the site of 25 episodes of lava fountaining, which led to the construction of a new pyroclastic cone on the eastern flank of the SEC. During these episodes lava overflows reached 4.3 km in length with an area of 3.19 km2 and a volume of 28 × 106 m3. The new cone, informally called New Southeast Crater (NSEC), grew over a pre-existing subsidence depression (pit crater), which had been formed in 2007–2009. The evolution of the NSEC cone was documented from its start by repeated GPS surveys carried out both from a distance and on the cone itself, and by the acquisition of comparison photographs. These surveys reveal that after the cessation of the lava fountains in April 2012, the highest point of the NSEC stood 190 m above the pre-cone surface, while the cone volume was about 19 × 106 m3, representing 38% of the total (bulk) volume of the volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout erupted in 2011–2012, which is 50 × 106 m3 (about 33 × 106 m3 dense-rock equivalent). Growth of the new cone took place exclusively during the paroxysmal phases of the lava fountaining episodes, which were nearly always rather brief (on the average 2 h). Overall, the paroxysmal phases of all 25 episodes represent 51 h of lava fountaining activity—the time needed to build the cone. This is the fastest documented growth of a newborn volcanic cone both in terms of volumeand height. Mean effusion rates during the lava fountaining episodes on 20 August 2011 (E11), as well as 12 and 24 April 2012 (E24 and E25) exceeded 500 m3/s (with maximum rates of 980 m3/s during E11) and thus they are among the highest effusion rates ever recorded at Etna. The composition of the erupted products varies in time, reflecting different rates of magma supply into the shallowfeeding system, but without notable effects on the eruptive phenomenology. This implies that the dynamics leading to the episodic lava fountaining was largely, though not entirely, controlled by the repeated formation and collapse of a foam layer in the uppermost portion of the magmatic reservoir of the NSEC.
    Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 01/2014; 270:10-21.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present a reconstruction of the stratigraphic setting of the continental sedimentary sequences that were deposited by the Paleo-Tiber River within the greater area of Rome between 0.9 and 0.6 Ma, carried out through analyses of a large number of borehole data. Through palinspastic restoration of several cross sections we depict the original geometry of the sedimentary record that has been dislocated by intense tectonic activity linked to volcanism, and we reconstruct the geologic and paleogeographic evolution of this area. Moreover, we provide a complete review of the chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic data reported in previous work, and we extend paleomagnetic analyses to three new clay sections. These geochronological constraints allow us to compare aggradation of the Paleo-Tiber sedimentary successions with the d18O record, evidencing a strict link between sedimentation and sea-level changes in the Rome area. By doing so, we provide a direct test on the timing of the sea-level rise for MIS 19 through MIS 15: a record of data for which no equivalent exists in the literature.
    Earth-Science Reviews 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A high resolution aeromagnetic survey of Mount Etna Volcano was carried out by the Airborne Geophysics Science Team of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), aimed at producing the most detailed magnetic anomaly map existing so far for this area. Two datasets of the total intensity of the Earth’s Magnetic Field were collected at different altitudes to take into account the huge topographic variations of Etna volcano, that reaches elevations above 3300 m asl. One level was flown at the altitude of 2200 m whereas a second one over the central part, at about 3500 m of altitude. Since the region is characterized by a large presence of strongly magnetized volcanic products, the survey was carried out acquiring profile lines only, in order to optimize the resources. From the residual magnetic anomaly analysis we inferred two main trending lineaments(-35°N and 0°) that are related to regional tectonic stress field and we interpret the main magnetic anomaly as the effect of thickness variation of magnetized volcanic products due to the complex pre-volcanic basement morphology of Etna.
    Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 01/2014;

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Annals of geophysics = Annali di geofisica 01/2011;
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Earth and Planetary Science Letters 01/2004;
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