218
1,100.19
5.05
370

Publication History View all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndromes and related autosomal disorders are severe primary immune deficiencies triggered by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Recent findings reviewed herein provided key new insights into the genetic and immunological basis of these diseases. They also improved our comprehension of the immunological mechanisms controlling EBV infection. Mutations of an X-linked gene, SH2D1A, which encodes the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP), are responsible for most cases of XLP disorders. More recently, other genetic causes for XLP syndromes and autosomal recessive variants of this disease were elucidated. Mutations in genes such as XIAP, ITK, and CD27 were identified. The clinical manifestations and immunological defects seen in these patients were characterized. The similarities and differences in immunological defects and clinical manifestations between XLP syndromes and related autosomal recessive disorders enabled important new insights into the pathogenesis of these diseases. They also helped our comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in the control of EBV infection. They suggested that CD8 T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells are critically involved.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 10/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human origins of DNA replication are specific sequences within the genome whereby DNA replication is initiated. A select group of proteins, known as the pre-replication (pre-RC) complex, in whose formation the Ku protein (Ku70/Ku86) was shown to play a role, bind to replication origins to initiate DNA replication. In this study, we have examined the involvement of Ku in breast tumorigenesis and tumor progression and found that the Ku protein expression levels in human breast metastatic (MCF10AC1a) cells were higher in the chromatin fraction compared to hyperplastic (MCF10AT) and normal (MCF10A) human breast cells, but remained constant in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. In contrast, in human intestinal cells, the Ku expression level was relatively constant for all cell fractions. Nascent DNA abundance and chromatin association of Ku70/86 revealed that the c-myc origin activity in MCF10AC1a is 2.5 to 5-fold higher than in MCF10AT and MCF10A, respectively, and Ku was bound to the c-myc origin more abundantly in MCF10AC1a, by approximately 1.5 to 4.2-fold higher than in MCF10AT and MCF10A, respectively. In contrast, similar nascent DNA abundance and chromatin association was found for all cell lines for the lamin B2 origin, associated with the constitutively active housekeeping lamin B2 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) performed on the nuclear extracts (NEs) of the three cell types revealed the presence of protein-DNA replication complexes on both the c-myc and lamin B2 origins, but an increase in binding activity was observed from normal, to transformed, to cancer cells for the c-myc origin, whereas no such difference was seen for the lamin B2 origin. Overall, the results suggest that increased Ku chromatin association, beyond wild type levels, alters cellular processes, which have been implicated in tumorigenesis.
    Journal of Cancer. 01/2013; 4(5):358-70.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the chromatin structure encompassing replication origins in transformed and normal cells. Analysis of the global levels of histone H3 acetylated at K9&14 (open chromatin) and histone H3 trimethylated at K9 (closed chromatin) revealed a higher ratio of open to closed chromatin in the transformed cells. Also, the trithorax and polycomb group proteins, Brg-1 and Bmi-1, respectively, were overexpressed and more abundantly bound to chromatin in the transformed cells. Quantitative comparative analyses of episomal and in situ chromosomal replication origin activity as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, using specific antibodies targeting members of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) as well as open/closed chromatin markers encompassing both episomal and chromosomal origins, revealed that episomal origins had similar levels of in vivo activity, nascent DNA abundance, pre-RC protein association, and elevated open chromatin structure at the origin in both cell types. In contrast, the chromosomal origins corresponding to 20mer1, 20mer2, and c-myc displayed a 2- to 3-fold higher activity and pre-RC protein abundance as well as higher ratios of open to closed chromatin and of Brg-1 to Bmi-1 in the transformed cells, whereas the origin associated with the housekeeping lamin B2 gene exhibited similar levels of activity, pre-RC protein abundance, and higher ratios of open to closed chromatin and of Brg-1 to Bmi-1 in both cell types. Nucleosomal positioning analysis, using an MNase-Southern blot assay, showed that all the origin regions examined were situated within regions of inconsistently positioned nucleosomes, with the nucleosomes being spaced farther apart from each other prior to the onset of S phase in both cell types. Overall, the results indicate that cellular transformation is associated with differential epigenetic regulation, whereby chromatin structure is more open, rendering replication origins more accessible to initiator proteins, thus allowing increased origin activity.
    Genes & cancer 02/2012; 3(2):152-76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the abundance of the major protein constituents of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC), both genome-wide and in association with specific replication origins, namely the lamin B2, c-myc, 20mer1, and 20mer2 origins. Several pre-RC protein components, namely ORC1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1, MCM4, MCM7, as well as additional replication proteins, such as Ku70/86, 14-3-3, Cdc45, and PCNA, were comparatively and quantitatively analyzed in both transformed and normal cells. The results show that these proteins are overexpressed and more abundantly bound to chromatin in the transformed compared to normal cells. Interestingly, the 20mer1, 20mer2, and c-myc origins exhibited a two- to threefold greater origin activity and a two- to threefold greater in vivo association of the pre-RC proteins with these origins in the transformed cells, whereas the origin associated with the housekeeping lamin B2 gene exhibited both similar levels of activity and in vivo association of these pre-RC proteins in both cell types. Overall, the results indicate that cellular transformation is associated with an overexpression and increased chromatin association of the pre-RC proteins. This study is significant, because it represents the most systematic comprehensive analysis done to date, using multiple replication proteins and different replication origins in both normal and transformed cell lines.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 12/2011; 113(4):1333-47.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using libraries of replication origins generated previously, we identified three clones that supported the autonomous replication of their respective plasmids in transformed, but not in normal cells. Assessment of their in vivo replication activity by in situ chromosomal DNA replication assays revealed that the chromosomal loci corresponding to these clones coincided with chromosomal replication origins in all cell lines, which were more active by 2-3-fold in the transformed by comparison to the normal cells. Evaluation of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) protein abundance at these origins in transformed and normal cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, using anti-ORC2, -cdc6 and -cdt1 antibodies, showed that they were bound by these pre-RC proteins in all cell lines, but a 2-3-fold higher abundance was observed in the transformed by comparison to the normal cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) performed on the most efficiently replicating clone, using nuclear extracts from the transformed and normal cells, revealed the presence of a DNA replication complex in transformed cells, which was barely detectable in normal cells. Subsequent supershift EMSAs suggested the presence of transformation-specific complexes. Mass spectrometric analysis of these complexes revealed potential new protein players involved in DNA replication that appear to correlate with cellular transformation.
    Nucleic Acids Research 04/2010; 38(7):2314-31.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Initiation of DNA replication involves the ordered assembly of the multi-protein pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) during G(1) phase. Previously, DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) was shown to associate with the DNA replication origin located in the lamin B2 gene locus in a cell-cycle-modulated manner. Here we report that activation of both the early-firing lamin B2 and the late-firing hOrs8 human replication origins involves DNA topo II-dependent, transient, site-specific dsDNA-break formation. Topo IIbeta in complex with the DNA repair protein Ku associates in vivo and in vitro with the pre-RC region, introducing dsDNA breaks in a biphasic manner, during early and mid-G(1) phase. Inhibition of topo II activity interferes with the pre-RC assembly resulting in prolonged G(1) phase. The data mechanistically link DNA topo IIbeta-dependent dsDNA breaks and the components of the DNA repair machinery with the initiation of DNA replication and suggest an important role for DNA topology in origin activation.
    Nucleic Acids Research 08/2009; 37(17):5714-24.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor encoded by the murine ecotropic integration site 1 gene (MEIS1) is a partner of HOX and PBX proteins. It has been implicated in embryonic patterning and leukemia, and causally linked to restless legs syndrome. The MEIS1A C terminus harbors a transcriptional activation domain that is stimulated by protein kinase A (PKA) in a manner dependent on the co-activator of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), CREB-binding protein (CBP). We explored the involvement of another mediator of PKA-inducible transcription, namely the CREB co-activators transducers of regulated CREB activity (TORCs). Overexpression of TORC1 or TORC2 bypassed PKA for activation by MEIS1A. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a physical interaction between MEIS1 and TORC2 that is dependent on the MEIS1A C terminus, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed PKA-inducible recruitment of MEIS1, PBX1, and TORC2 on the MEIS1 target genes Hoxb2 and Meis1. The MEIS1 interaction domain on TORC1 was mapped to the N-terminal coiled-coil region, and TORC1 mutants lacking this domain attenuated the response to PKA on a natural MEIS1A target enhancer. Thus, TORCs physically cooperate with MEIS1 to achieve PKA-inducible transactivation through the MEIS1A C terminus, suggesting a concerted action in developmental and oncogenic processes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2009; 284(28):18904-12.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutritional and functional outcome measures have been shown to vary in patients with chronic diseases according to the polymorphic alleles of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), but little is known about the associations between ACE gene polymorphism (ACEGP) and the components of body composition, strength, and selected blood markers in advanced cancer patients (ACP). Data were collected from an inception cohort of 172 newly diagnosed ACP with gastrointestinal and non-small cell lung cancer. ACEGP status was defined by the presence of one of the following three combinations of alleles: insertion/insertion, insertion/deletion, and deletion/deletion. Body composition measurements using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry comprised of the following: total fat mass, percent body fat, lean body mass, and appendicular lean mass. Body mass index; handgrip force by Jamar dynamometry; subjective recording of nutrition and performance status as per patient-generated subjective global assessment; cell blood count and differential, serum albumin, ACE, and C-reactive protein were also recorded. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for gender, age, diagnosis, treatments (radio/chemo), survival, and medication use (ACE inhibitors, anti-inflammatories, statins) revealed the following significant (P </= 0.05) relationships in the insertion/deletion compared with insertion/insertion group: higher hemoglobin (Hb; beta, 6.39 g/dl; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-12.78), lower total fat mass (-5.78 kg; -11.62 to 0.07), percent body fat (-6.04%; -12.20 to 0.12), and lean body mass (-3.26 kg; -6.78 to 0.26). When comparing the DD to the II group, higher serum ACE (9.10; 1.96-16.25), Hb (6.25 g/dl; -0.63 to 13.12), and handgrip force by Jamar (6.85 lbs; 0.78-12.93) were found. Of the variables studied, ACEGP seems to be primarily associated with differences in body composition, Hb, and muscle strength in ACP. Further data are needed to determine the clinical effect of ACEGP in cancer cachexia.
    Clinical Cancer Research 04/2009; 15(7):2442-7.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mannan outer chain N-glycan structures are yeast/fungal-specific typically found on secreted and cell wall glycoproteins. Mannan outer chains consist of an alpha-1,6 polymannose backbone attached to a Man(8-10)(GlcNAc)(2) core. The backbone contains branches of alpha-1,2 mannose residues, terminated with alpha-1,3 mannose and decorated with alpha-1,2 mannose phosphate. Mannan biosynthesis starts in the Golgi with the initial polymerization of the alpha-1,6 linked mannose backbone by the M-Pol I complex. Constructs encoding soluble portions of the M-Pol I subunits, Mnn9p and Van1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were expressed in Pichia pastoris. Both subunits had to be expressed in the same strain to obtain the recombinant proteins. Recombinant M-Pol I was made only by the KM71 strain transformed with two vectors: one encoding Mnn9p and the other encoding Van1p. Soluble secreted M-Pol I was purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Trisacryl, GDP-Hexanolamine-Sepharose and Superdex 200. Characterization of the purified complex indicates that recombinant M-Pol 1 is a Mnn9p-Van1p heterodimer. Purified M-Pol I was active with alpha-1,6 mannobiose as acceptor and GDP-mannose as donor. HPLC identified five products confirmed to be 3-7 mannose residues long. Digestion with linkage-specific alpha-mannosidases revealed that the linkage formed is exclusively alpha-1,6. No alpha-1,2 mannosyltransferase activity, reported previously for M-Pol I immunoprecipitates from cell extracts was detected. These results provide further information on the role of M-Pol I in mannan biosynthesis.
    Protein Expression and Purification 03/2009; 66(1):1-6.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that have been linked to an array of cellular processes, including inflammation, migration, and proliferation. Although signal transduction downstream of PARs has been actively investigated, little is known about the mechanisms that lead to changes in transcriptional programs. Here we show that the CUX1 homeodomain protein is a downstream effector of PAR2. Treatment of epithelial and fibroblastic cells with trypsin or the PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) caused a rapid increase in CUX1 DNA binding activity. The stimulation of CUX1 was specific to PAR2 because no effect was observed with thrombin or the PAR1-AP. Using a panel of recombinant CUX1 proteins, the regulation was found to involve the cut repeat 3 (CR3) and the cut homeodomain, two DNA binding domains that are present in all CUX1 isoforms. Expression analysis in cux1(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts led to the identification of three genes that are regulated downstream of both PAR2 and CUX1 as follows: interleukin-1alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-10, and cyclo-oxygenase-2. p110 CUX1 was able to activate each of these genes, both in reporter assays and following the infection of cells. Moreover, the treatment of Hs578T breast tumor cells with trypsin led to a rapid recruitment of p110 CUX1 to the promoter of these genes and to a concomitant increase in their mRNA steady-state levels. Altogether, these results suggest a model whereby activation of PAR2 triggers a signaling cascade that culminates with the stimulation of p110 CUX1 DNA binding and the transcriptional activation of target genes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 284(1):36-45.
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.