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Department of NanoBiophotonics
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Department of NMR-based Structural Biology
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Department of Theoretical and Computational Biophysics
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    ABSTRACT: In real-time MRI serial images are generally reconstructed from highly undersampled datasets as the iterative solutions of an inverse problem. While practical realizations based on regularized nonlinear inversion (NLINV) have hitherto been surprisingly successful, strong assumptions about the continuity of image features may affect the temporal fidelity of the estimated reconstructions. The proposed method for real-time image reconstruction integrates the deformations between nearby frames into the data consistency term of the inverse problem. The aggregated motion estimation (AME) is not required to be affine or rigid and does not need additional measurements. Moreover, it handles multi-channel MRI data by simultaneously determining the image and its coil sensitivity profiles in a nonlinear formulation which also adapts to non-Cartesian (e.g., radial) sampling schemes. The new method was evaluated for real-time MRI studies using highly undersampled radial gradient-echo sequences. AME reconstructions for a motion phantom with controlled speed as well as for measurements of human heart and tongue movements demonstrate improved temporal fidelity and reduced residual undersampling artifacts when compared with NLINV reconstructions without motion estimation. Nonlinear inverse reconstructions with aggregated motion estimation offer improved image quality and temporal acuity for visualizing rapid dynamic processes by real-time MRI. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 10/2014; 72(4). DOI:10.1002/mrm.25020
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    ABSTRACT: The regulatory role of histone modifications with respect to the structure and function of chromatin is well known. Proteins and protein complexes establishing, erasing and binding these marks have been extensively studied. RNAs have only recently entered the picture of epigenetic regulation with the discovery of a vast number of long non-coding RNAs. Fast growing evidence suggests that such RNAs influence all aspects of histone modification biology. Here, we focus exclusively on the emerging functional interplay between RNAs and proteins that bind histone modifications. We discuss recent findings of reciprocally positive and negative regulation as well as summarize the current insights into the molecular mechanism directing these interactions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function, edited by Dr. Wolfgang Fischle.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.03.015
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptive mobilization of body fat is essential for energy homeostasis in animals. In insects, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) systemically controls body fat mobilization. Biochemical evidence supports that AKH signals via a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) called AKH receptor (AKHR) using cyclic-AMP (cAMP) and Ca2+ second messengers to induce storage lipid release from fat body cells. Recently, we provided genetic evidence that the intracellular calcium (iCa2+) level in fat storage cells controls adiposity in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known about the genes, which mediate AKH signalling downstream of the AKHR to regulate changes in iCa2+. Here, we used thermogenetics to provide in vivo evidence that the GPCR signal transducers G protein α q subunit (Gαq), G protein γ1 (Gγ1) and Phospholipase C at 21C (Plc21C) control cellular and organismal fat storage in Drosophila. Transgenic modulation of Gαq, Gγ1 and Plc21C affected the iCa2+ of fat body cells and the expression profile of the lipid metabolism effector genes midway and brummer, which results in severely obese or lean flies. Moreover, functional impairment of Gαq, Gγ1 and Plc21C antagonised AKH-induced fat depletion. This study characterized Gαq, Gγ1 and Plc21C as anti-obesity genes and supported the model that AKH employs the Gαq/Gγ1/Plc21C module of iCa2+ control to regulate lipid mobilization in adult Drosophila.
    Journal of Genetics and Genomics 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jgg.2014.03.005


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    Am Faßberg 11, 37077, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • Head of Institution
    Gregor Eichele
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