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    ABSTRACT: There has been greater discussion among humanitarians in recent years about the rise in the number of 'strong states', and the suggestion has been made that states are increasingly reasserting their sovereignty. This introduction to this special issue of Disasters on 'State Sovereignty and Humanitarian Action' contends that it is not states that have changed, but rather the international framework that surrounds humanitarian action. The latter has altered so substantially that a fundamental gap has developed between states and international humanitarian actors in terms of describing what sovereignty entails and how it is expressed. At the heart of this dilemma are the urgent needs of people caught up in crises, whose well-being becomes the contested ground on which states and humanitarian actors clash. This paper explores the current and historical dimensions of these shifts, and provides a conceptual overview for this special issue.
    Disasters 07/2013; 37(s2). DOI:10.1111/disa.12018
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract While scholarship on health in conflict-affected countries is growing, there has been relatively little analysis of how armed conflict affects health systems in specific African countries, especially former French colonies. There is even less literature on the role of history in shaping health systems and how historical factors such as inequity may influence health impacts of armed conflict. Based on Côte d'Ivoire, this article argues that historical multidisciplinary analysis can provide valuable insight into the macro-level political, economic and social determinants of the health system over time. It explores how armed conflict has affected health services and exacerbates historically inherited challenges to the health system including unequal distribution of health services, bias towards curative care in urban areas, inadequate human resources and weak health governance. In the post-conflict period, this understanding may assist governments and other stakeholders to develop more appropriate health policies that address both urgent and long-term health needs.
    Global Public Health 05/2013; 8(6). DOI:10.1080/17441692.2013.791334

  • The Lancet 05/2013; 381(9879):1701-1702. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60956-3

  • The Lancet 03/2013; 381(9870):959-61. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60282-2
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Incidents involving the exposure of large numbers of people to radiological material can have serious consequences for those affected, their community and wider society. In many instances, the psychological effects of these incidents have the greatest impact. People fear radiation and even incidents which result in little or no actual exposure have the potential to cause widespread anxiety and behavior change. The aim of this study was to assess public intentions, beliefs and information needs in the UK and Germany in response to a hidden radiological exposure device. By assessing how the public is likely to react to such events, strategies for more effective crisis and risk communication can be developed and designed to address any knowledge gaps, misperceptions and behavioral responses that are contrary to public health advice. Methods: This study had three stages. The first stage consisted of focus groups which identified perceptions of and reactions to a covert radiological device. The incident was introduced to participants using a series of mock newspaper and broadcast injects to convey the evolving scenario. The outcomes of these focus groups were used to inform national telephone surveys, which quantified intended behaviors and assessed what perceptions were correlated with these behaviors. Focus group and survey results were used to develop video and leaflet communication interventions, which were then evaluated in a second round of focus groups. Results: In the first two stages, misperceptions about the likelihood and routes of exposure were associated with higher levels of worry and greater likelihood of engaging in behaviors that might be detrimental to ongoing public health efforts. The final focus groups demonstrated that both types of misunderstanding are amenable to change following targeted communication. Conclusion: Should terrorists succeed in placing a hidden radiological device in a public location, then health agencies may find that it is easier to communicate effectively with the public if they explicitly and clearly discuss the mechanisms through which someone could be affected by the radiation and the known geographical spread of any risk. Messages which explain how the risk from a hidden radiological device "works" should be prepared and tested in advance so that they can be rapidly deployed if the need arises.
    Prehospital and disaster medicine: the official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the World Association for Emergency and Disaster Medicine in association with the Acute Care Foundation 12/2012; 28(02):1-10. DOI:10.1017/S1049023X12001756
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    ABSTRACT: This article demonstrates how the work of Pierre Bourdieu offers a productive way to practice research in international relations. It especially explores the alternatives opened by Bourdieu in terms of a logic of practice and practical sense that refuses an opposition between general theory and empirical research. Bourdieu’s preference for a relational approach, which destabilizes the different versions of the opposition between structure and agency, avoids some of the traps commonly found in political science in general and theorizations of international relations in particular: essentialization and ahistoricism; a false dualism between constructivism and empirical research; and an absolute opposition between the collective and the individual. The “thinking tools” of field and habitus, which are both collective and individualized, are examined in order to see how they resist such traps. The article also engages with the question of whether the international itself challenges some of Bourdieu’s assumptions, especially when some authors identify a global field of power while others deny that such a field of power could be different from a system of different national fields of power. In this context, the analysis of transversal fields of power must be untied from state centrism in order to discuss the social transformations of power relations in ways that do not oppose a global/international level to a series of national and subnational levels.
    International Political Sociology 09/2011; 5(3):225 - 258. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-5687.2011.00132.x
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    ABSTRACT: In ten years of operation, the unwieldy Department of Homeland Security and its science directorate have seriously underperformed, says Peter D. Zimmerman.
    Nature 09/2011; 477(7363):153-4. DOI:10.1038/477153a
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    ABSTRACT: Poverty is highly concentrated in countries affected by armed conflict which are the furthest from reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Tracking aid patterns for health is crucial for improving the effectiveness of external aid to countries affected by armed conflict which tend to depend heavily upon external assistance and also have particularly acute health needs. This study systematically assesses the reliability of global aid databases which are commonly used for tracking aid to countries affected by armed conflict. It offers analyses of two main databases - the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) and the Financial Tracking System (FTS) by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of these data sources. A literature review was conducted to assess the existing evidence on aid tracking generally, and aid databases more broadly. Interviews were also conducted with experts involved in health resource tracking, donor agencies, and NGOs. Despite limitations, the CRS and FTS are appropriate for tracking aid for conflict-affected countries as they are comprehensive and allow analysis of different aid activities, countries, years, and donors. The study offers recommendations on how CRS and FTS might be enhanced to try and improve the accountability and effectiveness of aid to countries affected by armed conflict.
    Health Policy 05/2011; 100(2-3):116-24. DOI:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.08.007

  • Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 02/2011; 41(S67):59 - 79. DOI:10.1111/j.2041-5370.1996.tb01914.x

  • The Political Quarterly 08/2010; 81(3):397 - 405. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-923X.2010.02109.x

  • International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 08/2010; 39(2):442 - 445. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-9270.2010.00291.x

  • International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 08/2009; 38(2):443 - 444. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-9270.2009.00244_17.x
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    ABSTRACT: Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US $20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US $509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US $1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict.
    PLoS Medicine 07/2009; 6(6):e1000090. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000090
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2006 there has been a significant reduction in the level of fighting in the Russian republic of Chechnya between federal troops and Chechen rebels, indicating a substantial weakening of the insurgency. However, violence in the region has not entirely subsided; indeed, it has been spreading to neighbouring regions in the North Caucasus. Today, a loose network of formally autonomous violent groups, or Islamic jamaats, has developed throughout the North Caucasus, primarily in the Muslim republics of Ingushetia, Dagestan, Karachaevo-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria. Islamic ideals seem to guide and inspire much of the terrorist violence, although they are intermingled with deep nationalist sentiments, especially among rebel groups in Chechnya. However, the intricacies of the violence in the North Caucasus are much more complex, and are only partially related to the spread of radical Islam and separatist aspirations. Other underlying factors, such as the perpetuation of discredited and corrupt ruling elites, the persistence of severe economic hardship, youth unemployment and social alienation, and the absence of proper and effective channels of political expression are also driving the violence. Although hardly ever reported by the western media, events in the North Caucasus have significant implications for Europe and the wider world. The enlargement of the European Union and the inclusion of Ukraine and the three South Caucasian states into the EU neighbourhood policy have brought these countries and the adjacent areas of the North Caucasus closer to the EU. As a result, events in the North Caucasus are no longer the sole remit of countries in the region. There is a risk that instability and violence in the North Caucasus may spread into areas that are of growing significance not only to Europe, but also to the United States and the Atlantic alliance.
    International Affairs 06/2007; 83(4):681 - 705. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2007.00647.x
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly global features have created new defining descriptions of borders outside the traditional notion of 'geography' or 'natural' border characteristics. But within the context of these new defining features emerge border problems similar to those experienced by geographically adjacent territories. The fresh concept of a Jamaica - Britain border is defined by differences between the economy of the former as a developing state and that of the latter as a developed state. This defining characteristic fosters the two main border problems, illegal immigration and drug trafficking, via lucrative opportunities for a better life and huge profits from drug sales. As a far more dominant border problem, drug trafficking has connected Jamaica and Britain in a drug producing and consumption web. The problematic nature of this connection has heralded bilateral efforts to curb drug trafficking across the Jamaica - Britain border. The result has been the strengthening of a Jamaica - Britain focus on border problems, particularly on drug trafficking but also on illegal immigration matters in terms of their connection to drug trafficking. This article analyses the basis for a Jamaica - Britain border. Within that context it examines the problems affecting this border. It demonstrates that Jamaican - British agreements have proven beneficial in curbing border problems across the Jamaica - Britain border region.
    The Round Table 05/2007; 96(3):279-303. DOI:10.1080/00358530701463907
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    ABSTRACT: The absence of the international as a distinct socio-political sphere in Michel Foucault's work forms a major part of the postcolonial critique of his writings. The absence of the international has a number of consequences for any critical engagement with Foucault in the context of global politics. The significance of these consequences becomes apparent when we consider Foucault's analytics of war and power, situate these in relation to the particularity of the international, consider the very pertinent critiques of Foucault emanating from postcolonial writings, and finally re-locate Foucault in the international not, as is the predominant approach in International Relations, through the application of Foucaultian concepts, but through Foucault's own political writings on the non-western arena, specifically his engagement with the Iranian Revolution. While limited in their scope, an evaluation of these writings appears to vindicate postcolonial critiques of Foucault, though with some revealing qualifications.
    International Political Sociology 02/2007; 1(1):67 - 81. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-5687.2007.00005.x

  • International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 09/2006; 35(2):358 - 359. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-9270.2006.126_14.x
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    ABSTRACT: Peacekeeping operations form an increasing part of the role of the U.K. Armed Forces. This study identified perceived needs for training before such operations, experiences of stress during deployments, beliefs and attitudes regarding psychological support and debriefing on return, general attitudes toward peacekeeping duties, and positive aspects of the peacekeeping role. Although nearly all peacekeepers were exposed to a variety of experiences, most perceived stress came from professional difficulties and frustrations with the occupational role of being a peacekeeper, rather than from dangerous situations. The exception was a significant fear of land mines. For many, peacekeeping had a positive impact on soldiers' lives, most commonly an appreciation of "things back home." Respondents' opinions about the peacekeeping experience vary greatly. Additional training addressing and exploring potential conflicts between the traditional role of the soldier and the role of the peacekeeper may be useful.
    Military medicine 06/2006; 171(5):376-80. DOI:10.7205/MILMED.171.5.376
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    ABSTRACT: To collect information about the pre-flight experiences of unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC) in the UK to increase the understanding of support needed on arrival in the UK. Retrospective social services case file and legal statement review and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 100 UASC. Nearly half of all UASC have experienced separation from or loss of parents and/or family members (47%), and a further 41% had personally experienced or witnessed violence. Sexual violence (such as rape) was reported by 24% of African girls. Many children reported complex journeys to the UK. UASC arrive in the UK with a variety of potentially traumatic experiences. Whilst research is starting to identify some of the experiences of UASC, further culturally appropriate research is needed to identify their health and social needs after arrival. Further research will help to identify the specific experiences of UASC, indicating where services should be improved to deal with their complex and diverse needs.
    Child Care Health and Development 04/2004; 30(2):113-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2003.00404.x
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    ABSTRACT: The health needs of displaced populations vary widely. The question as to the demands displaced populations place on health care resources and health care providers in their destination countries or regions remains the subject of great debate and contention. Internationally, health care workers are faced with complex challenges in providing care to displaced populations. This paper highlights some of the key health issues for displaced populations around the globe. Whilst 'Band Aid' solutions to existing health problems are useful in the short term, the paper describes the need for long-term public health prevention and educational strategies to enable displaced communities full access to and participation in their new 'home' communities.
    British Medical Bulletin 02/2004; 69(1):115-27. DOI:10.1093/bmb/ldh009
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    The Lancet 01/2003; 360(9349):1901-2. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11936-2
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    ABSTRACT: As the momentum for further cuts in nuclear weapons grows and fears of nuclear proliferation increase, the need to monitor nuclear testing is becoming more pressing. While military observation satellites are already used for this purpose, this article argues that greater independence and impartiality could be achieved through the use of civilian remote sensing satellites, whose images could be made available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). How images from space are processed and interpreted is described, as is how civil satellites might be used to verify a comprehensive test ban treaty. Four options open to the IAEA for utilizing remotely sensed images are discussed.
    Space Policy 02/1995; 11(1-11):31-40. DOI:10.1016/0265-9646(95)93232-A
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    ABSTRACT: Strategic studies have not included an adequate appreciation of the impact of politics and geography. Whether a particular exercise of military power by a government can succeed depends to a considerable degree on whether that government is operating through consent or by coercion. The need for consent may limit military preparations, but coercion may prove to be more brittle under the strain of war. It is much more difficult to operate with consent away from home, in part because logistic requirements preclude a low military profile. This may result in the intervening power becoming caught up in a difficult local conflict.
    Political Geography Quarterly 10/1986; 5(4). DOI:10.1016/0260-9827(86)90057-1
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International Review of Psychiatry 07/2007; 19(3):253-62. DOI:10.1080/09540260701349399
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