Publication HistoryView all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the widely recognized link between schizophrenia and violence, the illness-specific factors underlying that association remain unclear. A body of work has implicated deficits in social cognition, consistently seen in schizophrenia, that may mediate the risk of violence. Two specific areas of interest are attributional bias and interpersonal style. We conducted a systematic literature search using EMBASE, Scopus, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and Science Direct databases with search terms relating to attributional bias, interpersonal style and violence/aggression in schizophrenia. Eleven studies were identified, six related specifically to attributional bias and five to interpersonal style. Results suggest an association between hostile and externalizing attribution biases, and violence in schizophrenia. Furthermore, hostile, dominant, and coercive interpersonal styles are also frequently associated with violence in schizophrenia. An interaction between cognitive impairments and underlying personality traits, as well as other co-morbid or illness factors, is proposed to likely underpin associations with violence in schizophrenia. Conclusions are limited by methodological constraints. The field would benefit from consistent definitions of violence, and a more systematic approach to cognitive assessment. Furthermore, studies with more homogeneous samples; and longitudinal designs are warranted in order to gain a better understanding of causation with regard to illness factors specific to schizophrenia.
    Aggression and Violent Behavior 05/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2014.04.009
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies have long reported that aging is associated with declines in several functions modulated by the prefrontal cortex, including executive functions like working memory, set shifting, and inhibitory control. The neurochemical basis to this is poorly understood, but may include the serotonergic system. We investigated the modulatory effect of serotonin using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) during a cognitive switching task involving visual-spatial set shifting modified for a functional MRI environment. Ten healthy women over 55 years were tested on two separate occasions in this within-group double-blind sham-controlled crossover study to compare behavioral and physiological brain functioning following ATD and following a ("placebo") sham depletion condition. ATD did not significantly affect task performance. It did modulate brain functional recruitment. During sham depletion women significantly activated the expected task-relevant brain regions associated with the Switch task including prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In contrast, following ATD participants activated posterior regions of brain more during switch than repeat trials. In addition to the main effects of depletion condition, a comparison of the ATD relative to the sham condition confirmed this anterior-to-posterior shift in activation. The posterior (increased) activation clusters significantly and negatively correlated with the reduced prefrontal activation clusters suggesting a compensation mechanism for reduced prefrontal activation during ATD. Thus, serotonin modulates an anterior-to-posterior shift of activation during cognitive switching in older adults. Neural adaptation to serotonin challenge during cognitive control may prove useful in determining cognitive vulnerability in older adults with a predisposition for serontonergic down-regulation (e.g., in vascular or late life depression). Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 02/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22187
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sensory processing abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and now form part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5th Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, but it is unclear whether they characterize the 'broader phenotype' of the disorder. We recruited adults (n = 772) with and without an ASD and administered the Autism Quotient (AQ) along with the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS), and the Glasgow Sensory Questionnaire (GSQ), all questionnaire measures of abnormal sensory responsivity. Autism traits were significantly correlated with scores on all three sensory scales (AQ/GSQ r = 0.478; AQ/AASP r = 0.344; AQ/CAPS r = 0.333; all p < 0.001). This relationship was linear across the whole range of AQ scores and was true both in those with, and without, an ASD diagnosis. It survived correction for anxiety trait scores, and other potential confounds such as mental illness and migraine.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2013; 44(6). DOI:10.1007/s10803-013-2012-7
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This Journal Club article looks at a study by Tessitore et al.,(1) who investigated functional connectivity (FC) within the default-mode network (DMN) in cognitively unimpaired patients with Parkinson disease (PD). PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD) and is expected to become progressively more prevalent in our aging societies. Thus, its social and economic burden on societies is expected to be even greater in the future.(2) Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling nonmotor symptoms of PD, further affecting functioning and quality of life, as well as increasing caregivers' burden and health-related costs.(3) When an individual is alert but not actively engaged in cognitive tasks, organized neural activity occurs in a set of brain regions called DMN (figure), which involves the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), parts of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus.(4) Interestingly, DMN abnormalities have been linked to cognitive profiles in several neurologic and psychiatric disorders, such as AD, autism, frontotemporal dementia, multiple sclerosis, and vegetative states(5); however, contradictory results have been reported in PD.(1) This study, for the first time, cogently demonstrates decreased FC within the DMN in cognitively unimpaired patients with PD.
    Neurology 12/2013; 81(23):e172-5. DOI:10.1212/01.wnl.0000436943.62904.09
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research into mental illness and its relationship with violence has been constrained by inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of violent behavior. We conducted a systematic literature search of Scopus, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Ovid Medline with search terms relating to the measurement, rating and quantification of violent behavior in mentally disordered populations. We identified nine tools designed to assess violence and critically evaluated them. Broadly, measurement tools tended to focus on multiple, but different, facets of violence, which included: severity of act, severity of outcome, frequency and intent, with each suggested as a valid outcome measure for violent acts. The use of multiple sources of information to inform assessment appears to provide detail; however, that detail is then often diluted as a result of dichotomization of sample groups. This presents methodological challenges for the field. Future studies should give consideration to the trade-off between preserving the richness of data and the difficulties associated with recruiting large patient samples. Studies should move from simply defining violence towards quantification across different dimensions of violence and using multiple sources of information.
    Aggression and Violent Behavior 11/2013; 18(6):695–701. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2013.07.022
  • Source

    Journal of Mental Health 08/2013; 22(4):301-5. DOI:10.3109/09638237.2013.819421
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The engagement of the cortical midline structures (CMS) is of crucial importance for two of the most recent and serendipitous discoveries in the field of neuroscience, namely the mirror neuron system (MNS) and the Default Mode Network (DMN). Here we discuss how future research may benefit from projects that explore the crossroads between MNS and DMN. It is this challenging curiosity about the self, one of the oldest naturalistic research questions, that will involve the neuroscientific community and, quoting the writer Lewis Carroll, make us once again 'curiouser and curiouser'.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 07/2013; 7:383. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00383

  • Journal of Neurology 07/2013; 261(6). DOI:10.1007/s00415-013-7023-y

  • Journal of Neurology 07/2013; 261(6). DOI:10.1007/s00415-013-7028-6
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emotion, memories and behaviour depend on the coordinated activities of regions connected by the limbic system. Here, we propose an update of the limbic model based on the seminal work of Papez, Yakovlev and MacLean. In the revised model we identify three distinct but partially overlapping networks: i) the hippocampal-diencephalic-retrosplenial network dedicated to memory and spatial orientation; ii) The temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network for the integration of visceral sensation and emotion with semantic memory and behaviour; iii) the default-mode network involved in autobiographical memories and introspective self-directed thinking. The three networks share cortical nodes that are emerging as principal hubs in connectomic analysis. This revised network model of the limbic system reconciles recent functional imaging findings with anatomical accounts of clinical disorders commonly associated with limbic pathology. Limbic system, tractography, white matter connections, brain networks, emotion, memory, amnesia, dementia, antisocial behaviour, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 07/2013; 37(8). DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.07.001
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.
View all

Top publications last week by reads

The Lancet Psychiatry 02/2015; 2(2):153-60. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00071-6
34 Reads
Clinical Psychology Review 12/2001; 21(8):1143-92. DOI:10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00106-4
21 Reads