[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulants are the first-line medication in the psychopharmacological treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, 10 to 30% of all children and adults with ADHD either do not respond to or do not tolerate treatment with stimulants.
To describe alternative treatment approaches with various non-stimulant agents, especially atomoxetine.
General review of empirically based literature concerning efficacy and safety of the substances.
A large and still increasing body of data supports the usefulness of atomoxetine, a once daily dosing, and new selective noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, with few side effects. Atomoxetine has been licensed in the US for use in ADHD across the lifespan, and is currently under consideration in Europe. Other non-stimulant substances, such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and alpha-2-adrenergic agonists, which are used to treat ADHD, are also reviewed. TCAs have been well studied and shown to be efficacious in the treatment of ADHD, but are limited by side effects. The number of studies documenting the efficacy of alpha-2-adrenergic agonists is still limited. Some experimental studies support a potential role of cholinergic drugs such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, donepezil) as well as novel nicotinic analogues (ABT-418).
Non-stimulant agents have been shown to be effective in treatment of ADHD. Especially, atomoxetine seems promising and newline drugs are in development.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 02/2004; 13 Suppl 1:I102-16.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.