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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial ATP-dependent K channel (mitoKATP) has been shown to play a role in cellular protection against apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This channel has been identified and characterized in a number of cell and tissue types but to date the possible existence of mitoKATP in osteoblastic cells has not been investigated. The aim of this investigation was to establish whether the mitochondria of human osteosarcoma-derived osteoblasts (SaOS-2 cells) contain the putative mitoKATP subunits Kir6.1 and Kir6.2. Ultrathin sections of SaOS-2 cells were prepared for transmission electron microscopy using an adaptation of the Tokuyasu method, and immunolabelled using goat anti-Kir6.1 or anti-Kir6.2 antisera as the primary label, and a 10nm colloidal gold-conjugated donkey anti-goat secondary antibody. The suitability of the antisera and the immunostaining protocol were confirmed by using a sample of rat cardiac muscle as a positive control. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that SaOS-2 cells contain Kir6.2 but not Kir6.1, and that Kir6.2 is present in the mitochondria, but in extremely low abundance. These findings suggest that human osteoblast-like cells might contain mitoKATP channels in which Kir6.2 is the pore-forming subunit, although it appears that these channels are likely to be present in extremely low abundance.
    Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2010; 2:739-51.
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    ABSTRACT: The invasive blood stage of malaria parasites, merozoites, are complex entities specialized for the capture and entry of red blood cells. Their potential for vaccination and other anti-malaria strategies have attracted much research attention over the last 40 years, and there is now a considerable body of data relating to their biology. In this article some of the major advances over this period and remaining challenges are reviewed.
    Parasitology 09/2009; 136(12):1435-44.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess and document the spectrum of histological appearances of persistent swellings which occur at injection sites following vaccination or allergen desensitization. Fourteen cases were studied. Four overlapping histological reaction patterns were evident. Ten cases showed at least focal fibrosis, fat necrosis and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate mainly in the subcutis, giving rise to the features of a non-specific septal and lobular panniculitis. The appearance of three cases, in addition to the non-specific panniculitis pattern, also included prominent lymphoid follicles with germinal centres and a prominent perifollicular infiltrate resembling a lymphoma (pseudolymphoma pattern). A single case mimicked lupus profundus, with a perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate in the dermis and hyaline fat necrosis. Three cases showed a predominantly palisaded histiocytic infiltrate surrounding eosinophilic necrobiosis, in a pattern closely resembling deep granuloma annulare or rheumatoid nodule. The remaining case partly showed this appearance, but in combination with panniculitis, thus demonstrating an overlap of patterns. A common feature in all 14 cases was the focal presence of histiocytes with abundant violaceous granular cytoplasm. These were shown to contain aluminium on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Persistent swellings at injections sites show a variety of overlapping patterns, which mimic other conditions. Identification of characteristic histiocytes with violaceous granular cytoplasm is the key distinctive feature allowing the correct diagnosis to be reached.
    Histopathology 02/2006; 48(2):182-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Comparison of elemental concentrations in growth-arrested airway smooth muscle cells with those in their proliferating counterpart showed that potassium (K(+)) was significantly reduced, whereas concentrations of other elements sodium (Na(+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), phosphorus (P), and chlorine (Cl(-)) remained unchanged. Reduced K(+)concentration was associated with a change in the cells from a spindle shape to a flattened form.
    Cell Biology International 02/2001; 25(7):691-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The temperature profile that occurs when a brass block warms up in a vacuum evaporation unit was determined. Freshly drawn human blood was concentrated by centrifugation, and the pellet was cryofixed and cryosectioned. The cryosections were subject to different freeze-drying protocols, using a freeze-drier with a temperature-controlled stage, to determine the effect of freeze-drying time on element distribution. Spectra were collected by spot analyses at various distances across the interface between red cells and plasma. Concentrations of sodium were high and variable outside the cell and low in the cell interior, with potassium showing the reverse distribution. The number of counts under the iron peak closely followed the potassium distribution. The concentration of sodium was higher than expected at 40 nm inside the cell membrane. This was attributed to the formation of ice crystals at the interface between the cells and plasma during cryofixation and the use of a wide probe size.
    Journal of Microscopy 06/2000; 198(Pt 2):116-23.
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