ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the literature to examine the interrelationship between mental health and treatment outcomes in low-income and middle-income settings; to update the work of Collins et al. (2006). DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles that examined one of the following: the effects of mental disorders (including cognitive impairment) upon engagement with treatment and/or adherence; their influence upon HIV-related clinical outcomes; and the impact of interventions for mental disorder. METHODS: Articles about mental health and HIV/AIDS were included if they were published after 2005 and addressed one of the areas of interest described above. Systematic methods were used for searching, screening, and data extraction. Studies employing quantitative measures of exposures and outcomes wherein all participants had a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS were included. RESULTS: This review found ample and moderately consistent evidence that adverse mental health and alcohol consumption are associated with reduced adherence. Variation in measurement and the relative paucity of work meant that interpretation of studies examining engagement with care and other clinical outcomes was difficult. Evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of mental health interventions in low-income and middle-income settings was very limited. CONCLUSION: This review suggests that psychosocial factors, namely, depression and alcohol may have adverse effects upon HIV-related outcomes. However, further large, high-quality studies examining outcomes other than adherence are needed. There is also an urgent need for randomized controlled trials of interventions for mental disorder and a need to investigate their impact upon HIV-related outcomes.
AIDS. 01/2012; 26 Suppl 2:S117-35.
ABSTRACT: The majority of research on HIV/AIDS and mental health has been carried out among clinical populations: the time of onset of comorbid depression and the mechanisms for this are therefore unclear. Although there is evidence to suggest that asymptomatic people living with HIV/AIDS exhibit some cognitive deficits, the prevalence of poor cognitive functioning among people in low income settings at an early, pre-clinical stage has not yet been investigated.
We used a cross-sectional survey design to test the hypotheses that symptoms of Common Mental Disorder (CMD) and low scores on cognitive tests would be associated with seropositivity among participants coming for testing for HIV/AIDS. Participants were recruited at the time of coming for testing for HIV/AIDS; voluntary informed consent was sought for participation in research interviews and data linkage with HIV test results. Baseline questionnaires including sociodemographic variables and measures of mental health (PHQ-9, GAD-7, panic disorder questions, AUDIT and delayed word list learning and recall and animal naming test of verbal fluency) were administered by trained interviews. HIV status data was extracted from clinical records.
CMD and scoring below the educational norm on the test of verbal fluency were associated with testing positive for HIV/AIDS in bivariate analysis (OR = 2.26, 1.31-3.93; OR = 1.77, 1.26-2.48, respectively). After controlling for the effects of confounders, the association between CMD and seropositivity was no longer statistically significant (AOR = 1.56, 0.86-2.85). After adjusting for the effects of confounders, the association between low scores on the test of verbal fluency and seropositivity was retained (AOR = 1.77, 1.27-2.48).
Our findings provide tentative evidence to suggest that low cognitive test scores (and possibly depressive symptoms) may be associated with HIV status among people who have yet to receive their HIV test results. Impaired cognitive functioning and depression-like symptoms may be the result of the same underlying neurological damage. CMD and cognitive impairment may overlap to a greater extent than previously assumed. If replicated, this may have implications for the way in which we measure and treat CMD and cognitive functioning among people living with HIV/AIDS.
BMC Public Health 01/2013; 13:204.
ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence, social patterning, treatment and control of hypertension among older people in the 10/66 Dementia Research Group developing country sites.
Cross-sectional surveys of SBP, hypertension, and hypertension awareness, treatment and control among 17 014 people aged 65 years and over in eight urban and four rural sites in Latin America, India and China.
Hypertension prevalence was higher in urban (range 52.6-79.8%) than rural sites (range 42.6-56.9%), and lower in men than women [pooled prevalence ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.93]. Educational attainment was positively associated with hypertension in rural and least-developed sites. Age-standardized morbidity ratios, compared to USA (100), were higher in urban sites in Cuba (105), Dominican Republic (109), and Venezuela (107), similar in Puerto Rico (105), urban Mexico (99) and urban India (101), and lower in urban (75) and rural (61) Peru, rural Mexico (81), urban (91) and rural (84) China and rural India (65). In most Latin American centres, and urban China just over one-third of those with hypertension were controlled (BP < 140/90). Control was poor in rural China (2%), urban India (12%) and rural India (9%). The proportion controlled, not compositional factors (age, sex, education and obesity), explained most of the between-site variation in SBP.
Uncontrolled hypertension is common among older people in developing countries, and may rise further during the demographic and health transitions. It is a major determinant of population SBP level. Strengthening primary care to improve hypertension management is necessary for primary prevention.
Journal of hypertension 11/2011; 30(1):177-87.