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Centre for Microbiology Research (CMR)
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Centre for Clinical Research
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Centre for Global Health Research
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    ABSTRACT: The WHO recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting unprotected receptive anal intercourse (RAI) and either multiple partners or a partner with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past 6 months should be presumptively treated for asymptomatic rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections. We evaluated this recommendation in a cohort of 'high-risk' MSM in Coastal Kenya. We assessed presence of genitourinary and rectal symptoms, and determined prevalence and 3-month incidence of rectal NG and CT infections. We performed nucleic acid amplification testing of urine and rectal swab samples collected from MSM followed prospectively, and assessed predictive values of the WHO algorithm at baseline screening. Of 244 MSM screened, 240 (98.4%) were asymptomatic, and 147 (61.3%) reported any RAI in the past 6 months. Among 85 (35.4%) asymptomatic MSM meeting criteria for the WHO presumptive treatment (PT) recommendation, we identified 20 with rectal infections (six NG, 12 CT and two NG-CT co-infections). Among 62 asymptomatic MSM who did not meet criteria, we identified seven who were infected. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO algorithm were 74.1% (95% CI 53.7% to 88.9%) and 45.8% (95% CI 36.7% to 55.2%), respectively. The 3-month incidence of any rectal NG or CT infection in asymptomatic men reporting any RAI was 39.7 (95% CI 24.3 to 64.8) per 100 person-years. About one-third of asymptomatic MSM were eligible to receive PT for NG and CT infections. Among MSM who would qualify for PT of rectal STIs, the number needed to treat in order to treat one infection was four. Our results support the value of the WHO screening algorithm and recommended PT strategy in this population.
    Sexually transmitted infections 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The kinetics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) neutralizing antibodies following birth, primary and secondary infections are poorly defined. The aims of the study were to measure and compare neutralizing antibody responses at different time points in a birth cohort followed-up over three RSV epidemics. Rural Kenyan children, recruited at birth between 2002 and 2003, were monitored for RSV infection over three epidemic seasons. Cord and 3-monthly sera, and acute and convalescent sera following RSV infection, were assayed in 28 children by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Relative to the neutralizing antibody titers of pre-exposure control sera (1.8 log10 PRNT), antibody titers following primary infection were (i) no different in sera collected between 0 and 0.4 months post-infection (1.9 log10 PRNT, P = 0.146), (ii) higher in sera collected between 0.5 and 0.9 (2.8 log10 PRNT, P < 0.0001), 1.0-1.9 (2.5 log10 PRNT, P < 0.0001), and 2.0-2.9 (2.3 log10 PRNT, P < 0.001) months post-infection, and (iii) no different in sera collected at between 3.0 and 3.9 months post-infection (2.0 log10 PRNT, P = 0.052). The early serum neutralizing response to secondary infection (3.02 log10 PRNT) was significantly greater than the early primary response (1.9 log10 PRNT, P < 0.0001). Variation in population-level virus transmission corresponded with changes in the mean cohort-level neutralizing titers. It is concluded that following primary RSV infection the neutralizing antibody response declines to pre-infection levels rapidly (∼3 months) which may facilitate repeat infection. The kinetics of the aggregate levels of acquired antibody reflect seasonal RSV occurrence, age, and infection history. J Med. Virol. 85:2020-2025, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 11/2013; 85(11):2020-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual concurrency has been associated with HIV infection. Since HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is mostly spread within the context of heterosexual couples, it is necessary that intervention is focused on such couples. We sought to establish the correlates of couple sexual concurrency in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews in 545 couples in a cross-sectional survey. A random sample of fishermen and their spouses from 33 fish-landing beaches along the shores of Lake Victoria in Kisumu were asked to enrol in the study. Couples were separated into different private rooms for simultaneous interviews that documented socioeconomic and behavioural characteristics, and information on number of sexual partnerships in the preceding 6 months and their status. Based on reported concurrency status of the spouses, a couple was categorised as either concurrent when at least one spouse reported a concurrent sexual relationship or non-concurrent. Overall, 32.1% of the men and 6.2% of the women had concurrent sexual relationships in the 6 months preceding the study, resulting in 37.6% of the couples being sexually concurrent. Unmet sexual desire, intra-spousal suspicions of infidelity, male dominance scripts, domestic violence, couples' children and women's age were the correlates of couple sexual concurrency. Unmet sexual desires, inter-spousal infidelity suspicions, male dominance scripts and domestic violence were the main correlates of couple sexual concurrency in these fishing communities.
    Sexually transmitted infections 10/2013;


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Top publications last week by downloads

Parasites & Vectors 07/2014; 7(1):310.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/2003; 68(4 Suppl):23-9.

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