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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is the production of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) free vermicompost from Parthenium hysterophorus L. Five different concentration of P. hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using Eudrilus eugeniae. Parthenium mediated vermicompost showed an increase in plant nutrition, but decrease in organic carbon and phenol contents when it was compared to initial feed mixtures. The 30-35% of organic carbon and 32-48% of phenol contents were reduced during vermicomposting, which was achieved after 45 days of earthworm's activity. FT-IR spectra revealed the absence of Parthenin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained at high concentration of cow dung. Earthworm's biomass gain was in low level in high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if P. hysterophorus is mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.
    Journal of hazardous materials 09/2013; 262C:489-495.
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    ABSTRACT: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The study reports the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles from weed plant by a novel method. The aim of this work is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from Parthenium hysterophorus L. by inexpensive, ecofriendly and simple method. Highly stable, spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using different concentrations of 50% and 25% parthenium leaf extracts. Both the concentrations of the leaf extract act as reducing and capping agent for conversion of nanoparticles. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). SEM, TEM and EDX analysis reveals that spherical and hexagonal zinc oxide nanoparticle sizes were 27±5nm and 84±2nm respectively and chemical composition of zinc oxide were present. We synthesized different sized zinc oxide nanoparticles and explored the size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens. Highest zone of inhibition was observed in 25μg/ml of 27±5nm size zinc oxide nanoparticles against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Parthenium mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and proved to be good antifungal agents and environment friendly.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 04/2013; 112C:384-387.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.
    Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 08/2012; 97:1140-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) used in shielded metal arc welding is widely recognized to act as a carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. The carcinogenic potential of metals is a major issue in defining human health risk from exposure. Hence in the present investigation, 66 welders and 60 control subjects with similar mean ages, smoking prevalences and alcohol consumption were enrolled for DNA damage analysis of buccal cells by micronucleus (MN) and comet assay. Welders showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells compared to controls and a larger mean comet tail length. The current study thus suggested that chronic occupational exposure to Cr (VI) during welding could lead to increased level of DNA damage. Understanding the complexity of the relationships between exposure, basal DNA damage and MN frequencies requires larger scale studies and application of complementary biomarkers.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(4):1041-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of certain simple and cost-effective processing methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of seed materials of an under-utilized food legume, Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck (velvet bean, VB), collected from Valanadu, Kerala, India was analyzed in experiment 1. The raw VB seeds were found to contain appreciable levels of crude protein (263.2 g/kg dry matter (DM)); ether extract (79.6 g/kg DM); crude fiber (95.8 g/kg DM) and ash content (38.4 g/kg DM). Among the different treatments used, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving was more effective in reducing maximum levels of various anti-nutritional compounds of VB seeds. Furthermore, in experiment 2, the effect of inclusion of different levels of velvet bean meal (VBM; subjected to soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving) as an alternative protein source in poultry feed on the growth performance of commercial-type broiler birds was investigated. The results indicate that the inclusion of VBM up to the 40% level exhibited better growth performance of the broiler birds such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio in both the starter and finisher phases.
    animal 01/2011; 5(1):67-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Road pavement workers are exposed to many known carcinogens in their complex occupational environment. The study makes an attempt to investigate exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the bitumen fumes among the road pavement workers engaged in different pavement sites at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu and to thereby determine the genotoxic effects associated with it. The study included 36 road pavers and 37 control subjects with similar mean ages, smoking prevalence and alcohol consumption and was analyzed for DNA damage in blood leucocytes by Micronucleus assay (MN) and the Comet assay. The mean urinary 1-OHP concentration in road pavers (1.68 ∓ 0.93) was significantly higher than in controls (0.55 ∓ 0.42). The results of MN test and comet assay showed that the mean micronuclei rate in workers was significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.05). The results of our study indicated that the genetic damage was detectable in road paving workers occupationally exposed to bitumen and also demonstrate the high sensitivity of comet assay to assess early oxidative effects induced by exposure to bitumen fumes at low doses and confirm the suitability of urinary 1-OHP as a biomarker of PAH exposure.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(3):713-7.
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    ABSTRACT: In India the incidence of breast cancer is on the rise and it is rapidly becoming the number one cancer in females, pushing cervical cancer to the second spot. The contribution of BRCA2 to the development of the sporadic form of breast cancer remains undefined. To assess the role of SNPs in exon 8 of the BRCA2 gene in breast cancer development in India, a population-based study was here carried out on 107 breast cancer patients and 96 controls by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. T-C transitions at positions 29 bp and 44 bp in relation to the total sequence of exon 8 were identified. Characterization of BRCA genes is relevant in a prevention setting as well as for the clinical management of hereditary breast cancer patients. The presently identified novel mutation in exon8 of the BRCA2 gene might have clinical significance.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(1):309-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of replacement of soybean meal by the velvet bean meal as an alternative protein ingredient on the growth performance of broiler chickens was investigated. The raw seeds of velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck], an under-utilized food legume collected from South India, was found to contain appreciable levels of crude protein (273.2 g/kg DM), lipid (60.61 g/kg DM), neutral detergent fiber (84.3 g/kg DM), and ash content (56.04 g/kg DM). Soaking in 0.2% sodium bicarbonate solution + autoclaving treatment caused a substantial reduction on the levels of various antinutritional compounds such as tannins (84%), L: -Dopa (79%), phytic acid (87%), raffinose (93%), stachyose (83%), verbascose (73%), haemagglutinating activity (84%), trypsin inhibitor activity (77%), and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity (78%) without affecting the nutritional quality of velvet bean seeds. The processed velvet bean meal was incorporated as an alternative protein source by replacing soybean meal protein at 0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% levels in the broiler diets. Replacement of soybean meal protein up to 40% level, which corresponds to the inclusion of velvet bean meal up to 15.7% and 11% in the starter and finisher phase poultry feeds, respectively, exhibited better growth performance of broiler birds without any adverse effects.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2010; 42(7):1367-76.
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    ABSTRACT: Calreticulin, since its discovery as a ubiquitous protein of endoplasmic reticulum, has become recognized as a multifunctional luminal resident protein affecting many cellular functions ranging from development to death of a cell. However its role in cancer and significance for therapy remains to be clarified. Here to examine its effects, the calreticulin gene was over expressed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines and influence on apoptosis was examined through an MTT assay. Upon culture in a suitable medium, cells transfected with the calreticulin gene were significantly more susceptible to apoptosis compared to controls. These findings therefore render a novel mechanism by which cancerous cells can be triggered to undergo death by upregulation of a protein resident in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2010; 11(4):1133-6.
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