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SourceAvailable from: Lucia Santana Freitas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate spending on medicines by Brazilian families and related income inequalities, according to types of medicines. A cross-sectional study used data from the Family Budget Surveys conducted in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. Expenditures were corrected according to the Extended National Consumer Price Index (IPCA). The Concentration Index (CI) was calculated as a measure of inequality. Average monthly spending on medicines was BRL 53.54 in the 2002-2003 survey and BRL 59.02 in 2008-2009. CI showed spending concentration in higher-income families. Spending composition varied according to family income. Lower-income families spent predominantly on analgesics, cold medicines, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Higher-income families concentrated their spending on medicines for diabetes and hypertension (and other cardiovascular diseases). From one survey to the next, even though lower-income households reduced the percentage of their budget spent on medicines, the latter still consume a large proportion of their health spending.Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 08/2013; 29(8):1605-16. DOI:10.1590/0102-311X00070912
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ABSTRACT: Avoidable causes of death have become an important indicator for evaluating health services. Such deaths would not occur if there were adequate prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment and the adoption of appropriate technologies. This article analyzes the pattern and magnitude of avoidable causes of death for the principal causes of death among elderly individuals up to 74 years of age, by gender, in São Paulo State, Brazil. The study further estimated the impact of avoidable causes of death on life expectancy among the elderly, and 62.5% of the deaths among elderly up to 74 years in São Paulo were due to these causes. The principal avoidable causes of death constituted 82.6% of all avoidable deaths, featuring hypertensions and tobacco-associated tumors. Life expectancy at 60 would increase by 20% if these deaths were avoided. Male excess mortality was observed in nearly all of the avoidable causes of death analyzed here, which could be related to greater exposure to risk factors and less use of health services by men. Prevention and health promotion measures should take these sharp gender differences into account.Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 04/2013; 29(4):735-48. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2013000400011
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ABSTRACT: This study analyzes homicide incidence per municipality (county) in Brazil in the year 2008. The authors estimate and compare homicide rates according to different methods, finding evidence that depending on the method employed, the results can differ significantly, especially for small municipalities. Bayesian spatial procedures were employed, allowing minimization of variation in the rate estimates. The methods consider a priori distributions and information on contiguity of municipalities. According to the findings, the impact of corrective procedures is not relevant for large municipalities, but such estimates present significant differences for small municipalities. Comparing the different estimates, the authors conclude that there may be distortions in the rates published in the literature. To overcome such potential distortions, it is necessary to take the main goal in each analysis into account. When the emphasis is on overall visualization of the homicide phenomenon, the best option is spatial corrections. However, to obtain more accurate local estimates, Bayesian methods are more appropriate.Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 07/2012; 28(7):1249-62.
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