São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Centro de Biotecnologia
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Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução - LEEV
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Laboratório de Genética
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    ABSTRACT: Here we evaluated whether Natterins affect the leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, hampering leukocyte mobilization and extravasation. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were evaluated in venules of mouse cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy. We reported that low doses of Natterins interfere with the cell capturing, inhibiting the interaction of blood neutrophils with the post-capillary venules induced by the TLR4 agonist LPS, or the chemokine KC. Using endotoxemic mice challenged with LPS, we confirmed that Natterins reduce neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneum exudates. The rolling of leukocytes induced by KC or LPS was not impaired in Natterins-treated TLR2, MyD88 deficient or TLR4 mutant mice, indicating that TLR2- or TLR4-MyD88-mediated signals are required for the anti-inflammatory effect of Natterins. The inhibitory effect was not influenced by endogenous regulators of inflammation such as IL-10, corticosteroids, the HO-1 or the antagonist of the receptor of IL-1, nor by the disruption of their proteolytic activity. However, it was completely dependent on the activation of serine/threonine phosphatases and the PI3K signaling pathway, but independent on increased proteasome activity. This work started asking how the main toxins in the T nattereri venom contributes for the deficient influx of inflammatory leukocytes, which consequently drive to the delayed inflammatory reaction finalization in injured tissue; and finished demonstrating that Natterins can control the leukocyte-endothelial wall interactions in a mechanism dependent on negative signals derived from TLR2-TLR4/Myd88 signaling cascade. Interestingly, we confirmed that the antagonist effect of Natterins is mediated by the activation of serine/threonine phosphatases and by the key signaling PI3K molecule.
    Toxicon 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST). Despite that, the mechanism of action of both toxins are well known, there is great controversy in the literature concerning the in vitro production and release of LT and, for ST, no major concerns have been discussed. Furthermore, the majority of published papers describe the use of only one or a few ETEC isolates to define the production and release of these toxins, which hinders the detection of ETEC by phenotypic approaches. Thus, the present study was undertaken to obtain a better understanding of ST and LT toxin production and release under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, a collection of 90 LT-, ST-, and ST/LT-producing ETEC isolates was used to determine a protocol for toxin production and release aimed at ETEC detection. For this, we used previously raised anti-LT antibodies and the anti-ST monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described herein. The presence of bile salts and the use of certain antibiotics improved ETEC toxin production/release. Triton X-100, as chemical treatment, proved to be an alternative method for toxin release. Consequently, a common protocol that can increase the production and release of LT and ST toxins could facilitate and enhance the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for ETEC using the raised and described antibodies in the present work.
    Toxins 12/2013; 5(12):2384-2402.
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    ABSTRACT: The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), an abundant bacterial protein involved in protein synthesis, has been shown to display moonlighting activities. Known to perform more than one function at different times or in different places, it is found in several subcellular locations in a single organism, and may serve as a virulence factor in a range of important human pathogens. Here we demonstrate that Leptospira EF-Tu is surface-exposed and performs additional roles as a cell-surface receptor for host plasma proteins. It binds plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner, and lysine residues are critical for this interaction. Bound plasminogen is converted to active plasmin, which, in turn, is able to cleave the natural substrates C3b and fibrinogen. Leptospira EF-Tu also acquires the complement regulator Factor H (FH). FH bound to immobilized EF-Tu displays cofactor activity, mediating C3b degradation by Factor I (FI). In this manner, EF-Tu may contribute to leptospiral tissue invasion and complement inactivation. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a leptospiral protein exhibiting moonlighting activities.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81818.


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ZooKeys 02/2009;
Biological Conservation 01/2013; 157:372-385.

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