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    ABSTRACT: The role of the variable conductivity profile κt(x) of the resistive tape in the process of metal deposition on its surface is investigated by comparison two versions of the calculation of process dynamics taking into account non-uniform distribution of the metal and substituting it at each time step for the average thickness of the deposit. It is demonstrated that a narrow κt(x) profile, sharply increasing to the current feeder, promotes substantial improvement of the uniformity of current distribution over the tape but its action is temporary. During subsequent deposition, as a result of the propagation of the deposit over the whole tape length and smoothing the steepness of the conductivity profile, gradual weakening of its leveling ability occurs. It has been established that the factors promoting an increase in the terminal effect (for example, a decrease in the conductivity of the seed layer and in average current density; an increase in tape length) at the same time enhance the leveling role of the κt(x) profile. As a result, the sensitivity of the final deposit distribution over the tape to the initial non-uniformity of deposit distribution (including that caused by the non-uniform initial conductivity profile of the seed layer) decreases sharply.
    Journal of electroanalytical chemistry 08/2014;
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    Journal of Membrane Science 06/2014; 459:45–51.
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    ABSTRACT: The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. The products were characterized using high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal (TG/DTA) analysis. To investigate the phase composition and stoichiometry of compounds the unit cell parameters were refined by full-profile Rietveld XRD analysis. The morphology of products and its evolution during high-temperature treatment was examined by SEM analysis.It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. The ceramic route requires a multi-stage high-temperature treatment to obtain zirconium and hafnium germanates of 95% purity or more. Also, there are strong diffusion limitations to obtain hafnium germanate Hf3GeO8 by ceramic route. On the contrary, the co-precipitation route leads to the formation of nanocrystalline single phase germanates of stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperatures (less than 1000 °C). The results of quantitative XRD analysis showed the hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds in contrast to zirconium germanates that form a set of solid solutions. This distinction may be related to the difference in the ion radii of Zr and Hf.
    Journal of Solid State Chemistry 01/2014; 209:89–96.

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    Novosibirsk, Russia
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