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    ABSTRACT: The effects of fertilization and the nature of the inoculum as well as the variation of the dose intake of the latter on the level of Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don mycorhization were tested. Young plants were treated with two inoculums presenting different origins, compositions and modes of application: one is a commercial product containing Glomus irregulare, and the other is a composite indigenous inoculum resulting from trapping five species of genus Glomus and also from multiplication on mycotrophic plants: leek (Allium porrum L.) and vetch (Vicia sativa L.). For each inoculum, two doses were tested and for each dose of inoculum, four levels of fertilization based on a complete commercial fertilizer (Osmocote) were tested: 0g/plant, 2g/plant, 4g/plant, and 6g/plant. Three repetitions were performed for each combination treatment of inoculum/fertilizer. One-year-old young Jacaranda plants, being about 40cm high, were cultured under greenhouse in 10/12cm caliber pots. After six months, all the inoculated plants were mycorrhized. According to endomycorrhizal structures found on their roots, plants receiving doses of composite indigenous inoculum reached a more advanced stage of mycorrhization than those treated with the commercial inoculum. The existence of an interaction effect between the inoculum dose and the level of fertilization on Jacaranda mycorhization rate was excluded. These two parameters of variation were studied as simple effects. The increase in commercial inoculum dose had a significant positive influence on the level of Jacaranda plants mycorrhization (P=0.05). The rate of mycorrhization jumped from 12.69% to 21.92%. Nonetheless, for plants receiving increasing doses of composite indigenous inoculum, the level of mycorrhization has varied randomly. In both instances of inoculum treatments, increasing the dose of fertilizer significantly inhibited endomycorrhizal colonization of Jacaranda roots (P=0.01). Thus, the rate of root colonization decreased from 47.43% to 2.41% for plants receiving the composite indigenous inoculums. It decreased from 32.35% to 3.95% for those treated with the commercial inoculum. Mycorrhization had a positive effect on root dry biomass of Jacaranda, as in the case of unfertilize ave the highest rates of colonization.
    Comptes rendus biologies 10/2013; 336(10):493-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Endocarp developmental timing in drupe-type fruits, involving tissue expansion and sclerification processes, is increasingly used as marker for biological studies and crop management. In spite of its wide application, however, little is known regarding how this morphogenetic process unfolds or the factors which modify it. This study evaluates endocarp expansion and sclerification of olive (Olea europaea) fruits, used as an example of drupe-type fruits, from trees growing under different water regimes: full irrigated, deficit irrigated (moderate reduction of water availability) and rainfed (severe reduction of water availability). Fruits were sampled weekly until pit-hardening, and fruit and endocarp areas evaluated in histological preparations. An image analysis process was tested and adjusted to quantify sclerified area and distribution within the endocarp. Individual stone cells differentiated independently but distribution and timing indicated the overall coordination of endocarp tissue sclerification. Increase in sclerified area was initially gradual, accelerated abruptly the week prior to the end of endocarp expansion, then continued at an intermediate rate. These results suggest that the end of the expansion period is driven by sclerification and the morphogenetic signals involved act first on sclerification rather than endocarp size. Intensification of sclerification and the end of expansive growth occurred first with lowest water supply. Moderate and severe reductions in water availability proportionately decreased endocarp expansion and prolonged the sclerification, delaying the date of physically perceived hardening but not affecting the final degree of endocarp sclerification.
    Physiologia Plantarum 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.
    Biodegradation 02/2013;

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    Tunis, Tunisia
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