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Centre for Climate Change Research
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Division of Climate and Global Modelling
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Division of Physical Meteorology and Aerology
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    ABSTRACT: h i g h l i g h t s Similar variation of OC and EC in all seasons. Both SOC and POC almost equally contributed to form OC. Dominance of POC and EC in post-monsoon and winter. A new term Effective carbon ratio in place of conventional OC/EC.: Organic and elemental carbon OC/EC ratio Primary and secondary organic carbon Effective carbon ratio a b s t r a c t Increasing emissions from fossil-fuel, biomass burning, land use changes and industrial growth have led to rapid increase in the atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species over many cities in India. The present paper deals with the results obtained from year long (2012e13) observations conducted at a tropical urban location, Pune in southwestern India on Organic and Elemental Carbon as well as Black Carbon; using the Sunset OCEC Analyzer and Aethalometer, respectively. The average mass concentra-tions of OC and EC were in the order of winter > post-monsoon > summer > monsoon. Mean annual OC/ EC ratio was found to be 2.4 AE 1.1 during the study period, suggesting the presence of secondary organic carbon (SOC). Estimated SOC was found to form 47% of OC mass concentration. OC and EC were also significantly well correlated (r ¼ 0.95, p < 0.0001) to each other, indicating towards common combustion sources. The primary organic carbon (POC) dominated over SOC and EC in post-monsoon and winter seasons indicating impact of anthropogenic burning activity, enhanced by prevailing meteorological conditions as well as that of long range transport. Mean annual POC þ EC/TC ratio was 0.69 indicating that more than 2/3 of TC is formed from combustion sources. Thermally derived EC and optically derived BC correlated very well (r ¼ 0.98, p < 0.0001). A new concept e.g. Effective carbon ratio (ECR) is suggested to better assess the scattering/absorptive nature and probable source identification of carbonaceous aerosols in place of conventional OC/EC ratio.
    Atmospheric Environment 05/2014; 92:493-500.
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) have been used to study the variability and its association with the climatic parameters over India during 2004 to 2011. The study also aims in understanding transport of CO2 from surface to mid-troposphere over India. The annual cycle of mid-tropospheric CO2 shows gradual increase in concentration from January till the month of May at the rate ~0.6ppm/month. It decreases continuously in summer monsoon (JJAS) at the same rate during which strong westerlies persists over the region. A slight increase is seen during winter monsoon (DJF). Being a greenhouse gas, annual cycle of CO2 show good resemblance with annual cycle of surface air temperature with correlation coefficient (CC) of +0.8. Annual cycle of vertical velocity indicate inverse pattern compared to annual cycle of CO2. High values of mid-tropospheric CO2 correspond to upward wind, while low values of mid-tropospheric CO2 correspond to downward wind. In addition to vertical motion, zonal winds are also contributing towards the transport of CO2 from surface to mid-troposphere. Vegetation as it absorbs CO2 at surface level, show inverse annual cycle to that of annual cycle of CO2 (CC-0.64). Seasonal variation of rainfall-CO2 shows similarities with seasonal variation of NDVI-CO2. However, the use of long period data sets for CO2 at the surface and at the mid-troposphere will be an advantage to confirm these results.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; 476-477C:79-89.
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of ambient particulate matters (viz., PM10 and PM2.5) were made with an hourly sampling frequency at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), New Delhi Branch (a residential area) during a period from December 2010 to November 2011. The data so generated were analyzed to understand frequency distribution of their concentrations and the impact of meteorological parameters on the distribution of particulate matters on different time scales. It is found that the particulate matters with cut off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10) preferentially occurred in the concentration range of 301–350 μg/m3 during winter and post-monsoon, 251–300 μg/m3 during summer and 51–100 μg/m3 during monsoon season. The particulate matters with cut off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) preferentially occurred in the concentration range of 201–250 μg/m3 during winter and 51–100 μg/m3 during the remaining seasons. The concentration of particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) remained always above the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) except during monsoon season. Annual distribution of the concentration of particulate matters showed seasonality with maximum in winter and minimum in monsoon season. Diurnal variation of PM10 and PM2.5 showed bimodal distribution with one maximum in the forenoon and the other at around mid-night. The observed seasonality and diurnal variability in the distribution are attributed mainly to the meteorology.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; 478:175–183.


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