[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to meta-analyses and reviews, subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) are beneficial in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AA) induced by house dust mites (HDMs). However, the reported effect sizes have varied greatly from one study to another.
We sought to perform an evidence-based medicine assessment of commercially available SCIT and SLIT formulations in patients with HDM-induced AA and HDM-induced AR.
We searched for double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials and analyzed study designs, doses, regimens, patient-reported outcomes, safety reporting, and compliance.
Forty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Some studies tested both SLIT and SCIT or scored both AA and AR outcomes; therefore we reviewed 35 treatment arms in patients with AA (20 for SCIT and 15 for SLIT) and 23 treatment arms in patients with AR (7 for SCIT and 16 for SLIT). The treatment duration ranged from 6 weeks to 3 years. For SCIT, the dose of Der p 1 major allergen (when reported) ranged from 7 to 30 μg for maintenance doses and 60 to 420 μg for cumulative doses. For SLIT, the doses of Der p 1 (when reported) were 0.8 to 70 μg for maintenance doses and 60 to 23,695 μg for cumulative doses. Safety data were often absent or poorly reported. A statistically significant active versus placebo symptom score was observed more frequently for SCIT than for SLIT.
There is no consensus on basic treatment parameters (eg, dose and duration) in HDM SCIT and SLIT. There is an urgent need for rigorous, long-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with an efficacy criterion that reflects the particular features of HDM-induced allergic disease.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2013;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is an increasing prevalence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma with house dust mite (HDM) being the common allergen that is highly associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy are part of treatment but it has proved difficult to change the course of HDM-related allergic diseases. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been in use for the past century and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic respiratory disease. Areas covered: This review exclusively focuses on HDM-AIT and discusses the differences in clinical efficacy and safety, long-term effect after discontinuation and immunological changes observed in both HDM-subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and HDM-sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma in both pediatric and adult populations. Expert opinion: The majority of studies involved small numbers of patients, variable doses of major allergens and are of variable quality. There is good evidence for HDM-SCIT efficacy and its long-term effect in adults and children, whereas at the present time, evidence for HDM-SLIT is unconvincing, particularly in children. In carefully selected patients, HDM-SCIT is effective and safe. More definitive trials are needed before HDM-SLIT can be recommended in routine practice for rhinitis and/or asthma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recombinant allergens for immunotherapy aim to overcome the problems of natural extracts as they can be produced in unlimited amounts with exact physiochemical and immunological properties. These can be modified to have more favourable characteristics including reduced IgE reactivity or enhanced immunogenicity. Different types of recombinant allergens have been evaluated in clinical phase II and III trials whilst others are currently under development. In this review, we identified double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of various recombinant allergen preparations. The majority of studies have up to now focused on cat, grass, birch, ragweed and bee venom allergens. Some studies have shown some of these preparations to be effective and well tolerated. However, there are still outstanding issues regarding optimum doses, minimising side effects and long-term effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The pruritic cytokine IL-31 has been shown to be expressed by murine activated effector T Lymphocytes of a TH2 phenotype. Like IL-17 and IL-22, IL-31 is a tissue-signaling cytokine the receptor of which is mainly found on nonimmune cells. An overabundance of IL-31 has been shown in patients with atopic disorders, including dermatitis, as well as asthma, and therefore represents a promising drug target, although its regulation in the context of the human TH2 clusters is not yet known. OBJECTIVE: We sought to address the gene regulation of human IL-31 and to test whether IL-31 possesses a similar proallergic function as members of the human TH2 cytokine family, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. METHODS: Polyclonal and purified protein derivative of tuburculin-specific T-cell clones were generated. TH phenotype was determined, and IL-31 was measured by means of ELISA. Gene expression of primary bronchial epithelial cells treated with IL-31 was also measured. RESULTS: IL-31 was expressed by all of the TH2 clones and not by TH1, TH17, or TH22. This expression was dependent on autocrine IL-4 expression from these clones because it could be reduced if blocking antibodies to IL-4 were present. Interestingly, TH1 clones were able to express IL-31 if IL-4 was added to culture. This IL-31 expression was transient and did not affect the phenotype of the TH1 clones. IL-31 was able to induce proinflammatory genes, such as CCL2 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. CONCLUSION: IL-31 is not a TH2 cytokine in the classical sense but is likely to be expressed by a number of cells in an allergic situation in which IL-4 is present and possibly contribute to the allergic reaction.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 05/2013;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highlights
► General method to identify the determinants of protective immunity and its application to HTLV-1. ► Observation made that “innate” KIR receptors enhance the HLA class I-restricted response in HTLV-1 infection. ► Description of the mechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence and of the importance of the viral protein HBZ. ► Observation made that CD8+ T cells kill infected, Tax-expressing cells in vivo at a slow rate. ► Description of the role of the HTLV-1 proviral integration site.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder with a variable course. It begins very early in life and of different phenotypes. Mainstay treatment for asthma is corticosteroids as controller therapy and guidelines recommends the add-on and step-up or step-down strategies. This review will focus on the studies that enhanced our understandings of the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on the natural course of asthma in regard to symptoms control, protective effect on lung function and potential side effects encountered during the treatment. Studies that evaluated approaches on steroid sparing effects and the effect of asthma progression in children are also reviewed.
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Cu rrent Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents) 10/2012;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only aetiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 10/2012; 8(10).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subcutaneous immunotherapy with high-dose grass pollen was first described more than 100 years ago. This treatment suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late responses, with lesser effects on early responses. In contrast, low-dose subcutaneous immunotherapy has not shown clinical benefit. Uncontrolled reports from the early 20th century describe low-dose allergen inoculation directly into the dermis, an immunologically active area containing abundant dendritic cells and lymphatics.
We sought to investigate the effect of low-dose intradermal grass pollen administration on cutaneous reactivity to allergen.
Thirty adults sensitized to grass and tree pollens were randomized to receive (1) 6 repeat intradermal injections at 2-week intervals of grass pollen extract (estimated 7 ng of the major grass allergen Phl p 5 per injection), (2) 2 intradermal injections separated by 10 weeks, or (3) a single intradermal injection at 10 weeks. At the end of the study, cutaneous early and late responses were measured after double-blind intradermal injection with grass and birch pollen.
Participants who received 6 fortnightly intradermal grass pollen injections had markedly smaller cutaneous late responses to grass pollen than control subjects who received 2 injections separated by 10 weeks (P < .01) or a single injection (P < .001) and showed induction of grass pollen-specific IgG antibodies. Suppression was observed whether late responses were measured on the arms or the back. However, early responses were equivalent in all groups.
Low-dose intradermal allergen, like conventional subcutaneous high-dose immmunotherapy, suppresses allergen-induced cutaneous late responses in a manner that is allergen specific, systemic, and associated with induction of IgG antibodies.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 08/2012; 130(4):918-924.e1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal allergen challenge can be used to assess the clinical and immunological aspects of rhinitis due to inhalant allergens. We aimed to develop a reproducible technique for grass pollen nasal allergen challenge and to study biomarkers within nasal secretions. 20 Grass pollen allergic individuals underwent nasal challenges with purified Timothy grass allergen. An initial dose-titration challenge was used to determine dose-response characteristics. Subsequently, volunteers underwent 3 further challenges using individualised threshold doses. Symptom scores, visual analogue scores, and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) were recorded at baseline and up to 6h after challenge. Nasal secretions were collected at each time point using synthetic filter papers or absorptive polyurethane sponges and analysed for IL-4, -5, -10, -13, IFN-γ, Tryptase and Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP). Challenges gave reproducible symptom scores and decreased PNIF. Tryptase levels in nasal fluid peaked at 5 min after challenge and returned to baseline levels at 1h. ECP, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 levels were increased from 2-3 h and showed progressive increases to 5-6 h. Sponges proved the superior nasal fluid sampling technique. We have developed a reproducible nasal allergen challenge technique. This may be used as a surrogate clinical endpoint in trials assessing the efficacy of treatments for allergic rhinitis. Tryptase in local nasal secretions is a potential biomarker of the early phase response; ECP and the Th2 cytokines IL-5, -13 and -4 markers of late phase allergic responses. Our model allows correlation between clinical responses and local biomarkers following nasal allergen challenge.
Journal of immunological methods 06/2012; 384(1-2):25-32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-bet and GATA-3 are transcriptional factors involved in Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation, although their concomitant roles at protein levels in target organs during human allergic disease have not been assessed.
We investigated the expression of T-bet and GATA-3 in nasal and cutaneous models of Th2 (grass-pollen allergen) and a cutaneous model of Th1 (PPD) responses in man.
Nasal biopsies were obtained at 8 h and skin biopsies at 8 and 48 h after allergen and PPD challenges, respectively, from 10 allergic rhinitics and 6 non-atopic controls. T cells were assessed using immunofluorescence microscopy.
There were increases in CD3(+)STAT6(+)cells (P = 0.01 for nose and skin) and CD3(+)GATA3(+)cells (P = 0.03 for skin) in response to allergen compared with diluent in allergics. When compared with non-atopics after allergen challenge the difference between the two groups was also significant for CD3(+)STAT6(+) (P = 0.001 and 0.03) and for CD3(+)GATA3(+)cells (P = 0.04 and 0.001) for nose and skin respectively. Following PPD challenge CD3(+)STAT4(+)cells and CD3(+)T-bet(+)cells increased in both groups compared with diluent (P = 0.02 and 0.03 for both TFs), whereas only CD3(+)T-bet(+) cells were significantly greater in non-atopics compared with allergics (P = 0.04). The ratio of GATA3(+):T-bet(+) T cells in allergen-induced responses was significantly greater in the allergics (P = 0.008 and 0.01 nose and skin respectively), whereas the ratio of T-bet:GATA3(+)T cells was significantly higher in the non-atopics during PPD-induced responses (P = 0.003).
Dysregulation of Th1 transcription may contribute to heightened expression of STAT6 and GATA3 leading to exaggerated Th2-driven manifestations of allergic disease.