Departments View all

Department of Life Sciences
1,627
Total Impact Points
344
Members
Department of Physics
7,871
Total Impact Points
319
Members
Department of Chemical Engineering
5,038
Total Impact Points
234
Members

Publication History View all

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rostral brainstem structure, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), is severely affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology and is regarded a promising target for therapeutic deep-brain stimulation (DBS). However, understanding the PPN's role in PD and assessing the potential of DBS are hampered by the lack of a suitable model of PPN degeneration. Rats were rendered Parkinsonian through a unilateral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) stereotaxic injection of the proteasome inhibitor Lactacystin, to investigate whether the lesion's pathological effects spread to impact the integrity of PPN cholinergic neurons which are affected in PD. At 5 weeks post-surgery, stereological analysis revealed that the lesion caused a 48 % loss of dopaminergic SNpc neurons and a 61 % loss of PPN cholinergic neurons, accompanied by substantial somatic hypotrophy in the remaining cholinergic neurons. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2 signal hyper-/hypointensity in the PPN of the injected hemisphere, respectively at weeks 3 and 5 post-lesion. Moreover, isolated PPN cholinergic neurons revealed no significant alterations in key autophagy mRNA levels, suggesting that autophagy-related mechanisms fail to protect the PPN against Lactacystin-induced cellular changes. Hence, the current results suggest that the Lactacystin PD model offers a suitable model for investigating the role of the PPN in PD.
    Brain Structure and Function 01/2015; 220(1):479-500.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A laser induced fluorescence technique was used to investigate the build-up of lubricant films in compliant contacts operating in the isoviscous elasto-hydrodynamic regime (I-EHL). The described technique utilises an optimised optical set-up with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio and was shown to be able to produce film thickness maps of the complete contact area and measure a very wide span of thicknesses, from 50 nm to 100 μm. Maps of film thickness were obtained over a range of entrainment speeds and loads for three different contact configurations and two elastomer materials, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) which is typically used in rotary seal applications. In a model contact of a nominally smooth PDMS ball sliding on a glass flat, a crescent shaped area of reduced film thickness was observed towards the contact exit. In contrast to typical elasto-hydrodynamic contacts, no side-lobes of reduced film thickness were recorded, while the central film region exhibited a converging wedge shape. The elliptical contact of an FKM O-ring rolling on a flat glass showed a central region of flat film while areas of minimum film thickness were located near the contact edges either side of the centre. The highly conformal contact of relatively rough FKM O-ring sliding against a concave glass lens, a geometry more representative of that found in elastomeric seals, showed discrete regions of reduced film, corresponding to surface roughness asperities. With rising entrainment speed, some lift-off was observed, with surface roughness asperities appearing to be increasingly compressed. Measured films thicknesses were compared to existing theoretical predictions for I-EHL contacts and the level of agreement was found to be highly dependent on contact geometry and applied conditions.
    Tribology International 12/2014; 80:76–89.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We estimate the number of electron-positron pairs which will be produced during the burning of a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasma in conditions that are anticipated will be achieved at the National Ignition Facility. In particular we consider, for the first time, the effect of including the gamma photons produced in a low probability channel of the DT reaction. It is found that non-thermal effects driven by the fusion products are the dominant method of pair production, and lead to a number density of positrons within the capsule in excess of 3×1017cm−3. The positrons are predominately produced by the Bethe-Heitler process and destroyed by two photon annihilation.
    High Energy Density Physics 12/2014;

Information

  • Address
    South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, London, United Kingdom
  • Head of Institution
    Sir Keith O’Nions
  • Website
    www3.imperial.ac.uk
  • Phone
    tel: +44 (0)20 7589 5111
Information provided on this web page is aggregated encyclopedic and bibliographical information relating to the named institution. Information provided is not approved by the institution itself. The institution’s logo (and/or other graphical identification, such as a coat of arms) is used only to identify the institution in a nominal way. Under certain jurisdictions it may be property of the institution.

6135 Members View all

Top Collaborating Institutions

Collaborations

This map visualizes which other institutions researchers from Imperial College London have collaborated with.

Rg score distribution

See how the RG Scores of researchers from Imperial College London are distributed.