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Department of Life Sciences
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Department of Physics
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National Heart and Lung Institute
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Publication History View all

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electric field component of the microwaves emanating from the dielectric resonator is able to penetrate the microfluidic channel, serum, and individual blood cells. Subsequently, it interacts with every hemoglobin molecule present within each red blood cell. On page 536 , Toby H. Basey-Fisher and team conclude that the dielectric contrast between water and hemoglobin means that a change in the hemoglobin concentration leads to a change in the microwave response.
    Journal of Interconnection Networks 04/2014; 3(4):461.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protective mucosal immune responses are thought best induced by trans-mucosal vaccination, providing greater potential to generate potent local immune responses than conventional parenteral vaccination. However, poor trans-mucosal permeability of large macromolecular antigens limits bioavailability to local inductive immune cells. This study explores the utility of polymeric penetration enhancers to promote trans-mucosal bioavailability of insulin, as a biomarker of mucosal absorption, and two vaccine candidates: recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (CN54gp140) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Responses to vaccinating antigens were assessed by measurement of serum and the vaginal humoral responses. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), Dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) and Chitosan enhanced the bioavailability of insulin following intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL), intravaginal (I.Vag) and intrarectal (IR) administration. The same penetration enhancers also increased antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses to the model vaccine antigens in serum and vaginal secretions following IN and SL application. Co-delivery of both antigens with PEI or Chitosan showed the highest increase in systemic IgG and IgA responses following IN or SL administration. However the highest IgA titres in vaginal secretions were achieved after IN immunisations with PEI and Chitosan. None of the penetration enhancers were able to increase antibody responses to gp140 after I.Vag immunisations, while in contrast PEI and Chitosan were able to induce TT-specific systemic IgG levels following I.Vag administration. In summary, we present supporting data that suggest appropriate co-formulation of vaccine antigens with excipients known to influence mucosal barrier functions can increase the bioavailability of mucosally applied antigens promoting the induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses.
    Journal of Controlled Release 03/2014;
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: The Lambda-doublet transitions in CH at 3.3 and 0.7 GHz are unusually sensitive to variations in the fine-structure constant and the electron-to-proton mass ratio. We describe methods used to measure the frequencies of these transitions with Hz-level accuracy. We produce a pulsed supersonic beam of cold CH by photodissociation of CHBr3, and we measure the microwave transition frequencies as the molecules propagate through a parallel-plate transmission line resonator. We use the molecules to map out the amplitude and phase of the standing wave field inside the transmission line. We investigate velocity-dependent frequency shifts, showing that they can be strongly suppressed through careful timing of the microwave pulses. We measure the Zeeman and Stark effects of the microwave transitions, and reduce systematic shifts due to magnetic and electric fields to below 1 Hz. We also investigate other sources of systematic uncertainty in the experiment.
    Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy. 03/2014;


  • Address
    South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, London, United Kingdom
  • Head of Institution
    Sir Keith O’Nions
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    tel: +44 (0)20 7589 5111
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