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Department of Life Sciences
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Department of Physics
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Department of Chemical Engineering
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Publication History View all

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We estimate the number of electron-positron pairs which will be produced during the burning of a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasma in conditions that are anticipated will be achieved at the National Ignition Facility. In particular we consider, for the first time, the effect of including the gamma photons produced in a low probability channel of the DT reaction. It is found that non-thermal effects driven by the fusion products are the dominant method of pair production, and lead to a number density of positrons within the capsule in excess of 3×1017cm−3. The positrons are predominately produced by the Bethe-Heitler process and destroyed by two photon annihilation.
    High Energy Density Physics 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A laser induced fluorescence technique was used to investigate the build-up of lubricant films in compliant contacts operating in the isoviscous elasto-hydrodynamic regime (I-EHL). The described technique utilises an optimised optical set-up with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio and was shown to be able to produce film thickness maps of the complete contact area and measure a very wide span of thicknesses, from 50 nm to 100 μm. Maps of film thickness were obtained over a range of entrainment speeds and loads for three different contact configurations and two elastomer materials, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) which is typically used in rotary seal applications. In a model contact of a nominally smooth PDMS ball sliding on a glass flat, a crescent shaped area of reduced film thickness was observed towards the contact exit. In contrast to typical elasto-hydrodynamic contacts, no side-lobes of reduced film thickness were recorded, while the central film region exhibited a converging wedge shape. The elliptical contact of an FKM O-ring rolling on a flat glass showed a central region of flat film while areas of minimum film thickness were located near the contact edges either side of the centre. The highly conformal contact of relatively rough FKM O-ring sliding against a concave glass lens, a geometry more representative of that found in elastomeric seals, showed discrete regions of reduced film, corresponding to surface roughness asperities. With rising entrainment speed, some lift-off was observed, with surface roughness asperities appearing to be increasingly compressed. Measured films thicknesses were compared to existing theoretical predictions for I-EHL contacts and the level of agreement was found to be highly dependent on contact geometry and applied conditions.
    Tribology International 12/2014; 80:76–89.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Air Traffic Control (ATC) involves a complex interaction of human operators (primarily air traffic controllers), equipment and procedures. On the rare occasions when equipment malfunctions, controllers play a crucial role in the recovery process of the ATC system for continued safe operation. Research on human performance in other safety critical industries using human reliability assessment techniques has shown that the context in which recovery from failures takes place has a significant influence on the outcome of the process. This paper investigates the importance of context in which air traffic controller recovery from equipment failures takes place, defining it in terms of 20 Recovery Influencing Factors (RIFs). The RIFs are used to develop a novel approach for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context based on a metric referred to as the Recovery Context Indicator (RCI). The method is validated by a series of simulation exercises conducted at a specific ATC Centre. The proposed method is useful to assess recovery enhancement approaches within ATC centres.
    Reliability Engineering [?] System Safety 12/2014; 132:60–71.

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  • Address
    South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, London, United Kingdom
  • Head of Institution
    Sir Keith O’Nions
  • Website
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