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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we evaluated the nephrotoxicity of individual mycotoxins and combinations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) to livestock using porcine kidney 15 cells (PK-15) as a disease model via biochemical approaches. The toxicity of individual mycotoxins on cell viability and cell membrane damage was determined using the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, respectively. Individual cytotoxicity of mycotoxins in increasing order were FB1<ZEA<AFB1<DON. The MTT results of central composite design (CCD) showed synergetic effects after co-exposure of AFB1+ZEA or AFB1+DON; however, AFB1 and ZEA showed antagonistic effects in the ternary mixtures. AFB1 and DON significantly induced ROS production and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, but ZEA (10-40μM) had no effect on cell apoptosis and only slightly induced ROS production. ZEA ameliorated the ROS production caused by 1μM AFB1; however, ZEA and DON displayed synergistic effects in combination with AFB1 at 5 and 10μM. The existence of 10μM ZEA attenuated AFB1-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, AFB1+ZEA or DON showed synergetic effects on cytotoxicity. Low levels of AFB1 were antagonistic to ZEA, but high doses of AFB1 displayed synergistic effects with ZEA or DON on oxidative damage. ZEA also ameliorated AFB1-induced apoptosis. Generally, the combined effects of mycotoxins acted in a concentration-dependent manner.
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of endogenous noncoding small RNAs involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes. Recently, miR-29 was found to participate in myogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms by which miR-29 promotes myogenesis have not been identified. We found here that miR-29 was significantly upregulated with age in postnatal mouse skeletal muscle and during muscle differentiation. Overexpression of miR-29 inhibited mouse C2C12 myoblast proliferation and promoted myotube formation. miR-29 specifically targeted Akt3, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family responsive to growth factor cell signaling, to result in its post-transcriptional downregulation. Furthermore, knockdown of Akt3 by siRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation of C2C12 cells, and conversely, overexpression of Akt3 suppressed their differentiation. Collectively and given the inverse endogenous expression pattern of rising miR-29 levels and decreasing Akt3 protein levels with age in mouse skeletal muscle, we propose a novel mechanism in which miR-29 modulates growth and promotes differentiation of skeletal muscle through the post-transcriptional downregulation of Akt3.
    Cell Death & Disease 06/2013; 4:e668.
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ∼22 nucleotide regulatory RNAs that regulate the stability and translation of cognate messenger RNAs(mRNAs). MicroRNAs participate in the regulation of adipogenesis and identification of the full repertoire of MicroRNAs expressed in adipose tisse is likely to improve our understanding of adipose tissue growth and development significantly. In the present study, it is found that miR-224-5p abundance decreases first and then increases during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. And early growth response 2 (EGR2) and Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) are direct targets of miR-224-5p. Further studies in mouse 3T3-L1 cell-line shows that miR-224-5p is a novel negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation through post-transcriptional regulation of early growth response 2 during early adipogenesis. Furthermore, miR-224-5p could regulate fatty acid metabolism through Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 at terminal differentiation. It indicates that miR-224 plays different roles on different stages of adipogenesis.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Bora is the binding partner of Aurora A, which is required for its activation and phosphorylation of Polo like kinase 1 (Plk1), and is involved in the spindle assembly and progress of the cell cycle during mitosis. In this study, we examined the expression, localization, and function of Bora during mouse oocyte meiosis. The expression level of Bora was increased during oocyte meiotic maturation, with an elevated level at metaphase. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Bora was concentrated as a dot shortly after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), associating first with the surrounding chromosomes and then with the spindle throughout the oocyte meiotic maturation. Further experiments confirmed that Bora co-localized with α-tubulin at prometaphase/metaphase, but dissociated from α-tubulin at anaphase/telophase. In metaphase-II-arrested oocytes, Bora was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm after treatment with a microtubule-depolymerizing agent, or recruited to the spindle after treatment with a microtubule-polymerizing agent, indicating that Bora was physically connected to the meiotic spindle and α-tubulin at metaphase. Furthermore, inhibition or depletion of Bora by either anti-Bora antibody or siRNA microinjection significantly reduced the rates of GVBD and inhibited first polar body extrusion; caused morphologically defective spindles and misaligned chromosomes; arrested maturing oocytes at prometaphase/metaphase-I stage, or left oocytes and their first polar bodies with severely misaligned chromosomes and defective spindles; and/or caused the disappearance of Aurora A and Plk1 at the spindle. These results indicated that Bora acts as a critical regulator of Aurora A and Plk1, and is involved in microtubule organization during oocyte meiosis. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Neurexophilin 1 (nxph1) has been considered a potential candidate marker for sperm storage in chicken sperm storage tubules. In this work, one mutation of chicken nxph1 was detected. We analyzed 18 nxph1 gene sequences from 18 species. The coding sequence length of the zebra fish nxph1 gene is 819 bp; that of the other species is 816 bp. Amino acid alignment analysis revealed that the gene product is a conserved protein, especially in mammals. The sequences of mammals are highly conserved. We found 202 conserved amino acids (70-271), and there were only eight mutations in the remaining 69 amino acids. That level of conservation could be due to the nxph1 gene having been subjected to substantial constraints or strong purifying selection during millions of years of evolution.
    Biochemical Genetics 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary n-3 PUFA have been demonstrated to promote muscle growth in growing animals. In the present study, fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) in the skeletal muscle of growing pigs fed a DHA-enriched (DE) diet (DE treatment) or a soyabean oil (SO) diet (SO treatment) were evaluated in the fed and feed-deprived states. Feeding-induced increases in muscle FSR, as well as the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and protein kinase B, were higher in the DE treatment as indicated by the positive interaction between diet and feeding. In the fed state, the activation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 in the skeletal muscle of pigs on the DE diet was higher than that in pigs on the SO diet (P <0·05). Feeding the DE diet increased muscle insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) expression (P <0·05) and insulin action (as demonstrated by increased insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, P <0·05), resulting in increased IR substrate 1 activation in the fed state. However, no difference in plasma IGF-1 concentration or hepatic IGF-1 expression between the two treatments was associated. The increased IGF-1 expression in the DE treatment was associated with increased mRNA expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A and decreased mRNA expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, mRNA expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1), the activation of PTPN1 and the activation of NF-κB in muscle were significantly lower in the DE treatment (P <0·05). The results of the present study suggest that feeding a DE diet increased feeding-induced muscle protein synthesis in growing pigs, and muscle IGF-1 expression and insulin action were involved in this action.
    The British journal of nutrition 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: MiR-133 was found to be specifically expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle in previous studies. There are two members in the miR-133 family: miR-133a and miR-133b. Although previous studies indicated that miR-133a was related to myogenesis, the signaling pathways regulated by miR-133 were still not very clear. In this study, we showed that both miR-133a and miR-133b were upregulated during myogenesis through Solexa sequencing. We confirmed that miR-133 could promote myoblast differentiation and inhibit cell proliferation through the regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in C2C12 cells. FGFR1 and PP2AC, which both participate in signal transduction of the ERK1/2 pathway, were found to be negatively regulated by miR-133a and miR-133b at the post-transcriptional level. Also, downregulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by miR-133 was detected. FGFR1 and PP2AC were also found to repress C2C12 differentiation by specific siRNAs. In addition, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway activity can inhibit C2C12 cell proliferation and promote the initiation of differentiation but form short and small myotubes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of miR-133 was negatively regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In summary, we demonstrated the role of miR-133 in myoblast and further revealed a new feedback loop between miR-133 and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway involving an exquisite mechanism for regulating myogenesis.
    Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e934.
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    ABSTRACT: Follicular atresia is a process of spontaneous degradation of follicles, hindering growth and development in the mammalian ovary. Previous studies showed that follicular atresia was caused by apoptosis of granulosa cells, for which a number of apoptosis-related genes have already been identified. The roles of p53 in apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells and its post-translational modification are still unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the roles of p53 in mouse granulosa cells. We found that mouse p53b, but not p53a, could be SUMOylated by SUMO-1 at lysine 375, which was essential for the protein stability of p53b in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescent staining showed that wild p53b was located in the nucleus of granulosa cells, while its mutation of SUMOylated site (K375R) was localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm, implying that SUMOylation was necessary for the nuclear localization of p53b in granulosa cells. Overexpression of wild-type p53b, but not the mutation of SUMOylation site (K375R), significantly induced the expression of apoptosis-related gene, Bax, and increased the level of apoptosis in granulosa cells. This suggested that SUMO-1 modification of p53b was essential for inducing apoptosis in granulosa cells. Our results provide strong evidences that modification of p53b by SUMO-1 at lysine 375 was necessary for its activity to induce apoptosis in mouse granulosa cells, and it was involved in the regulation of p53b protein stability and nuclear localization. This implies that modification of p53b by SUMO-1 might regulate follicular atresia by inducing the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells in mice.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63680.
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    ABSTRACT: Intramuscular fat (IMF) is an important trait influencing meat quality, and preadipocyte differentiation is a key factor affecting IMF deposition. Here we compared the transcriptome profiles of porcine intramuscular and subcutaneous preadipocytes during differentiation to gain insight into specific molecular and cellular events associated with intramuscular stromal vascular cell (MSVC) differentiation. RNA-Seq was used to screen for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the in vitro differentiation of MSVC and subcutaneous stromal vascular cell (ASVC) on days 0, 2 and 4. A total of 985 DEGs were identified during ASVC differentiation and 1469 DEGs during MSVC differentiation. Among these DEGs, 409 genes were specifically expressed during ASVC differentiation, 893 genes were specifically expressed during MSVC differentiation, and 576 DEGs were co-expressed during ASVC and MSVC differentiation. The expression profiles of DEGs during ASVC or MSVC differentiation were determined by cluster analysis based on Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM). Four significant STEM profiles (profiles 1, 4, 5, and 14) were determined during ASVC differentiation, and four significant STEM profiles (profiles 1, 4, 11, and 14) were determined during MSVC differentiation. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that DEGs related to adipocyte differentiation were identified to be significantly enriched in both adipose and muscle profile 14. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of DEGs in adipose profile 14 and muscle profiles 11 and 14 (STEM clustered them into one cluster) showed that the PPAR signaling pathway was significantly enriched in these profiles and four signaling pathways were specifically enriched in muscle profiles 11 and 14. Furthermore, analysis of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in the gene set revealed two over-represented transcription factors (NR3C4 and NR3C1), which were specifically significantly enriched in the promoter regions of genes within muscle gene expression profiles 11 and 14.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e77094.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the mechanism by which n-3 PUFA regulated the protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes. Compared with the BSA control, EPA at concentrations from 400 to 600 µM decreased total protein degradation (P < 0.01). However, the total protein degradation was decreased when the concentrations of DHA ranged from 300 µM to 700 µM (P < 0.01). DHA (400 µM, 24 h) more efficiently decreased the I κ B α phosphorylation and increased in the I κ B α protein level than 400 µM EPA (P < 0.01). Compared with BSA, 400 µM EPA and DHA resulted in a 47% or 68% induction of the NF κ B DNA binding activity, respectively (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, 400 µM EPA and DHA resulted in a 1.3-fold and 2.0-fold induction of the PPAR γ expression, respectively (P < 0.01). In C2C12 myotubes for PPAR γ knockdown, neither 400 µM EPA nor DHA affected the levels of p-I κ B α , total I κ B α or NF κ B DNA binding activity compared with BSA (P > 0.05). Interestingly, EPA and DHA both still decreased the total protein degradation, although PPAR γ knockdown attenuated the suppressive effects of EPA and DHA on the total protein degradation (P < 0.01). These results revealed that DHA inhibits protein degradation more efficiently than EPA by regulating the PPAR γ /NF- κ B pathway in C2C12 myotubes.
    BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:318981.
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