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    ABSTRACT: Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 19(44):7972-7982.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in Mexico. Current guidelines recommend routine CKD testing in patients at increased risk for CKD. We undertook this study to examine the diagnostic yield of targeted screening (case-finding) for CKD in high-risk populations in rural and urban communities in Jalisco, Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, we did laboratory tests searching for CKD and its risk factors and compared the characteristics of participants with those reported by the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (NHNS). Individuals who were aware that they had CKD and those <18 years of age were excluded. There were 9,169 participants assessed: 28.7% were men and mean age was 55.6 ± 13.7 years. They were predominantly female (71.3 vs. 55.6% p = 0.0001) and older (55.59 ± 0.1 vs. 42.5 ± 0.3 years, p = 0.0001) than the NHNS population. Self-reported diabetes (41.9 vs. 7.3% p = 0001) and fasting blood sugar >126 mg/dl (56.1 vs. 14.4% p = 0.0001) were more prevalent among the participants; self-reported hypertension (41.9 vs. 7.3%, p = 0.0001), systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg (52.5 vs. 43.2%, p = 0.0001), and obesity (42.8. vs. 29.3%, p = 0.0001) were also more frequent among participants. There were 19.7% with proteinuria; CKD was more prevalent among the high risk participants in our study (31.3 vs. 8.0%, p = 0.0001) than in the general population. CKD was detected frequently in high-risk Mexican populations. Trials of case-finding and intervention are feasible and warranted in Mexico.
    Archives of medical research 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The pattern of the contrast media-induced adverse reactions has not been investigated extensively in Mexico. To estimate the incidence and the degree of severity of the adverse reactions to contrast media, administered for the first time, in hospitalized subjects. We studied 99 patients longitudinally on whom computed tomography with contrast media (iopamidol) was carried out. The adverse reactions were identified by clinical examination; subsequently, they were classified as mild, moderate and severe, following the Manual on Contrast Media version 9 guides, and as immediate and nonimmediate. In addition, the vital functions, oxygen saturation, serum creatinine levels and the total number of eosinophils were measured before and after the procedure. The incidence of immediate and nonimmediate adverse reactions was of 26.3% and 10.1%, respectively. The mild immediate reactions were 18 (69.2%), the most common being the sensation of warmth, nausea and pruritus; among the more delayed reactions, nephrotoxicity stood out (5.1%). The serum creatinine median showed no difference either before or after the intravenous injection of contrast media (p = 0.13); in contrast, there was a significant difference in the total number of eosinophils (p ≤ 0.001). The values of high baseline systolic blood pressure and the diminished baseline amounts in pulse oximetry were significantly related with any type of the adverse reactions to contrast media. The incidence of the adverse reactions to contrast media was greater with respect to previous reports; the majority of these reactions were of the immediate type and of a mild nature. The risk factors that have mostly been implicated in the adverse reactions to contrast media could not be identified in our cohort.
    Asia Pacific allergy. 10/2013; 3(4):241-248.

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    Guadalajara, Mexico
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International journal of antimicrobial agents 11/2009; 34(4):304-8.
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