Hawassa University

Shashemenē, Ethiopia

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School of Public and Environmental Health
10
Total Impact Points
9
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Department of Biology
2
Total Impact Points
8
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Classifying multi-temporal image data to produce thematic maps and quantify land cover changes is one of the most common applications of remote sensing. Mapping land cover changes at the regional level is essential for a wide range of applications including land use planning, decision making, land cover database generation, and as a source of information for sustainable management of natural resources. Land cover changes in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Southern Ethiopia, were investigated using Landsat MSS image data of 1973, and Landsat TM images of 1985, 1995, and 2011, covering a period of nearly four decades. Each image was partitioned in a GIS environment, and classified using an unsupervised algorithm followed by a supervised classification method. A hybrid approach was employed in order to reduce spectral confusion due to high variability of land cover. Classification of satellite image data was performed integrating field data, aerial photographs, topographical maps, medium resolution satellite image (SPOT 20 m), and visual image interpretation. The image data were classified into nine land cover types: water, built-up, cropland, woody vegetation, forest, grassland, swamp, bare land, and scrub. The overall accuracy of the LULC maps ranged from 82.5 to 85.0 %. The achieved accuracies were reasonable, and the observed classification errors were attributable to coarse spatial resolution and pixels containing a mixture of cover types. Land cover change statistics were extracted and tabulated using the ERDAS Imagine software. The results indicated an increase in built-up area, cropland, and bare land areas, and a reduction in the six other land cover classes. Predominant land cover is cropland changing from 43.6 % in 1973 to 56.4 % in 2011. A significant portion of land cover was converted into cropland. Woody vegetation and forest cover which occupied 21.0 and 10.3 % in 1973, respectively, diminished to 13.6 and 5.6 % in 2011. The change in water body was very peculiar in that the area of Lake Hawassa increased from 91.9 km(2) in 1973 to 95.2 km(2) in 2011, while that of Lake Cheleleka whose area was 11.3 km(2) in 1973 totally vanished in 2011 and transformed into mud-flat and grass dominated swamp. The "change and no change" analysis revealed that more than one third (548.0 km(2)) of the total area was exposed to change between 1973 and 2011. This study was useful in identifying the major land cover changes, and the analysis pursued provided a valuable insight into the ongoing changes in the area under investigation.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infectionsare a major public health burden in tropical countries. Although all HIV/AIDS patients are susceptible to parasitic infections, those having lower immune status are at greater risk. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in patients living with HIV/AIDS. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A total of 343 consecutively sampled HIV/AIDS patients from the HIV care clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital were included. Subjects were interviewed for demographic variables and diarrheal symptoms using structured questionnaires. Stool examinations and CD4 cells counts were also performed. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.8% among HIV/AIDS patients; single helminthic infection prevalence (22.7%) was higher than that the prevalence of protozoal infections (14.6%). About 54% of study participants had chronic diarrhea while 3.4% had acute diarrhea. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea was significantly higher than in acute diarrhea (p <0.05). Non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., and hookworm were commonlyfound, regardless of immunestatus or diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection were more frequent in patients with a CD4 count of <200/mm(3) (OR=9.5; 95% CI: 4.64-19.47) when compared with patients with CD4 counts of ≥500 cells/mm(3). Intestinal parasitic infections should be suspected in HIV/AIDS-infected patients with advanced disease presenting with chronic diarrhea. Patients with low CD4 counts should be examined critically for intestinal parasites, regardless of diarrheal status.
    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 11/2013; 7(11):868-72.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ruminants slaughtered in Bahir-Dar, northern Ethiopia, were studied to estimate the prevalence and types of foreign bodies in the rumen and reticulum. Of the 400 cattle, 320 sheep, and 320 goats examined between November 2011 and May 2012, 41.8, 20.6 and 11.9 %, respectively, contained one or more types of foreign bodies. The prevalence of foreign bodies was significantly (P < 0.05) higher (i) in cattle than in sheep and goats, (ii) in cattle in poor body condition than those in good condition, and (iii) in the rumen than in the reticulum. The most commonly encountered materials were plastics, which resulted from the widespread use of plastic bags and improper waste disposal. Other materials found were cloth, rope, metal, and leather. The study demonstrated that ruminants in the area are ingesting various types of indigestible foreign bodies, which can hamper their health and productivity. To avert the problem, collaborative intervention schemes need to be applied involving professionals, policy makers, livestock keepers, and environmental activists.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2013;

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    Shashemenē, Ethiopia
  • Website
    http://www.hu.edu.et/
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Top publications last week by downloads

 
Journal of Business Administration and Management Sciences Research. 12/2012; 1(1):1-9.
374 Downloads
 
International Journal of Business and Management 03/2012; Vol. 7(No. 6):March 2012.
92 Downloads

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