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    ABSTRACT: The caldose_x 5.0 software has been used to assess the entrance skin doses (ESD) and effective doses (ED) of adult patients undergoing x-ray examinations of the thorax/chest (PA/RLAT), pelvis (AP), cervical spine (AP/LAT), thoracic spine (AP) and lumber spine (AP) in three public hospitals each equipped with constant potential generators (no ripple), an x-ray emission angle of 17° and a total filtration of 2.5 mm Al. In all, 320 patients were surveyed with an average of over 100 patients per a hospital. The patients' data and exposure parameters captured into the software included age, sex, examination type, projection posture, tube potential and current-time product. The mean ESD and ED of seven different examinations were calculated using the software and compared with published works and internationally established diagnostic reference levels. The mean ESD calculated were 0.27 mGy, 0.43 mGy, 1.31 mGy, 1.05 mGy, 0.45 mGy, 2.10 mGy, 3.25 mGy and the mean effective doses were 0.02 mSv, 0.01 mSv, 0.09 mSv, 0.05 mSv, 0.03 mSv, 0.13 mSv, 0.41 mSv for thorax (PA), thorax/chest (RLAT), Pelvis (AP), cervical spine (AP), cervical spine (LAT), thoracic spine (AP) and lumber spine (AP) respectively.
    Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An effective method for determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been validated using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The GC-ECD method was validated by determining the linear range (working range) for determination of the compounds, minimum detectable quantities (MDQ), the precision and accuracy of the method for the analysis of the compounds. MDQ obtained for the compounds ranges from 0.0005 to 0.002ng. Indeed the method was found to be more sensitive as the number of chlorine atoms attached to the biphenyl increases. The precision and accuracy of the GC method validated ranges from 2.4% to 14.5% and -7.0% to 14.6% respectively. Coefficient of variation associated with the repeatability of the retention times and corresponding peak areas was found to be 0.0001-0.0007 for the retention times and 0.0014-0.059 for the peak areas. Percentage recoveries for the compounds were in the range of 95.7-101.0%. The validated method was then applied to determine levels of indicator PCBs in sediments sampled from eleven sampling points along the Lake Bosuntwi in Ghana and the highest PCB load of 19.17ngg(-1) was recorded at Pipie No. 2. PCB 52 and PCB 101 were found to be the most ubiquitous indicator PCBs in the study area, both with 90.91% occurrence.
    Chemosphere 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 09/2013; 63(9):1036-45.


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International Journal of Biological & Medical Research. 01/2011;

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