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    ABSTRACT: An effective method for determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been validated using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The GC-ECD method was validated by determining the linear range (working range) for determination of the compounds, minimum detectable quantities (MDQ), the precision and accuracy of the method for the analysis of the compounds. MDQ obtained for the compounds ranges from 0.0005 to 0.002ng. Indeed the method was found to be more sensitive as the number of chlorine atoms attached to the biphenyl increases. The precision and accuracy of the GC method validated ranges from 2.4% to 14.5% and -7.0% to 14.6% respectively. Coefficient of variation associated with the repeatability of the retention times and corresponding peak areas was found to be 0.0001-0.0007 for the retention times and 0.0014-0.059 for the peak areas. Percentage recoveries for the compounds were in the range of 95.7-101.0%. The validated method was then applied to determine levels of indicator PCBs in sediments sampled from eleven sampling points along the Lake Bosuntwi in Ghana and the highest PCB load of 19.17ngg(-1) was recorded at Pipie No. 2. PCB 52 and PCB 101 were found to be the most ubiquitous indicator PCBs in the study area, both with 90.91% occurrence.
    Chemosphere 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in Navrongo, a town in the Sahel Savannah Zone of Ghana, have been measured and the major sources have been identified. This area is prone to frequent particulate pollution episodes due to Harmattan dust and biomass burning, mostly from annual bushfires. The contribution of combustion emissions, particularly from biomass and fossil fuel, to ambient air particulate loadings was assessed. Sampling was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in Navrongo. Two Gent samplers were equipped to collect PM10 in two size fractions, coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5). Coarse particles are collected on a coated, 8-microm-pore Nuclepore filter. Fine particle samples were sampled with 47-mm-diameter Nuclepore and quartz filters. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were determined from the quartz filters using thermal optical reflectance (IMPROVE/TOR) methods. Elements were measured on the fine-particle Nuclepore filters using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained at Navrongo was 32.3 microg/m. High carbonaceous concentrations were obtained from November to March, the period of Harmattan dust and severe bush fires. Total carbon was found to contribute approximately 40% of the PM2.5 particulate mass. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) suggested six major sources contributing to the PM2.5 mass. They are two stroke engines, gasoline emissions, soil dust, diesel emissions, biomass burning, and resuspended soil dust. Biomass combustion (16.0%) was identified as second most important source next to soil dust at Navrongo.
    Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 09/2013; 63(9):1036-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Assessments of radon and gamma radiation levels were carried out in underground artisanal gold mines in Tongo. This is one of the numerous artisanal gold mining communities in Ghana. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) were used to estimate the mean (222)Rn concentration and dose rates during the Harmattan season (November 2010 to February 2011). The values for the (222)Rn concentration at each monitoring site ranged from 14 ± 4 Bq m(-3) to 270 ± 9 Bq m(-3), with a mean value of 98 Bq m(-3). These measurements are well below the lower action level of 500 Bq m(-3) recommended by ICRP for workplaces. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The effective dose estimates of 0.11 ± 0.02 mSv y(-1) to 0.68 ± 0.04 mSv y(-1) were below the allowable limit of 20 mSv per annum for occupational exposure control recommended by the ICRP. The total annual effective dose varied from 0.22 ± 0.04 mSv y(-1) to 1.92 ± 0.08 mSv y(-1).
    Journal of environmental radioactivity 08/2013; 126C:77-82.

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International Journal of Recent Trends in Science And Technology,. 01/2012; 3:09-17.
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European Journal of Food Research & Review. 10/2012; 2(3):69-78.
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