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SourceAvailable from: Anton Chyrkin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the present study the long-term behaviour of two ferritic steels, Crofer 22 APU and Crofer 22H, in contact with a Ni-mesh during exposure in simulated anode gas, Ar–4%H2–2%H2O, at 700 and 800 °C for exposure times up to 3000 h was investigated. Ni diffusion from the Ni-mesh into the steel resulted in the formation of an austenitic zone whereas diffusion of iron and chromium from the steel into the Ni-mesh resulted in the formation of chromia base oxides in the Ni-mesh. Depending on the chemical composition of the steel, the temperature and the exposure time, interdiffusion processes between ferritic steel and Ni-mesh also resulted in σ-phase formation at the austenite–ferrite interface and in Laves-phase dissolution in the austenitic zone. The extent and morphology of the σ-phase formation are discussed on the basis of thermodynamic considerations, including reaction paths in the ternary alloy system Fe–Ni–Cr.Journal of Power Sources 12/2014; 271:213–222. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.07.189
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ABSTRACT: Re-oxidation robustness is important to warrant a reliable operation of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell systems. The current work concentrates on the mechanical properties of re-oxidation stable Y-substituted SrTiO3 ceramic for the use as anode substrate material. Room temperature micro-indentation yielded Young's modulus and hardness of 160 and 7 GPa, respectively, whereas the temperature-dependent modulus was measured with a resonance-based method up to ∼950 °C. The effective Young's modulus as a function of porosity was measured at room temperature and compared with fracture strength data. The fracture toughness was assessed using a combination of pre-indentation cracks and bending test. Creep rates were measured at 800 and 900 °C in a 3-point bending configuration. Post-test fractographic analysis performed using stereo, confocal and scanning electron microscopy, revealed important information on fracture origins and critical defects in the material. A methodology to assess the mechanical properties of porous materials is suggested.Journal of the European Ceramic Society 12/2014; 34(15):3749–3754. DOI:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2014.05.013
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ABSTRACT: Fuel-cell-powered APUs (auxiliary power units) are advantageous for on-board electricity supply in heavy trucks, airplanes and ships due to their high efficiency and operation with low emissions. To operate the fuel cells with the fuel available on-board, a desulfurization process is required to avoid the catalyst deactivation in the fuel reforming unit and the fuel cells. The present study aims at developing a modified hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process. The principle underlying this process is the pre-saturation of sulfur-containing fuels with hydrogen-rich reformate. In a pre-saturator, the reformate is mixed with the liquid fuel and compressed to the saturation pressure. This paper presents experimental results demonstrating the desulfurization performance for treating a commercial jet fuel and a high sulfur diesel fuel. A commercial jet fuel with up to 813 ppmw S was desulfurized by a H2-containing reformate to a sulfur level under 10 ppmw at an operating temperature in the range of 360 °C to 390 °C and a pressure of 30 bar to 70 bar. Under these conditions a high sulfur diesel fuel was desulfurized to the desired sulfur level as well. A long-term experiment running for up to 602 h verified the durability of the investigated HDS process.Fuel Processing Technology 11/2014; 127:59–65. DOI:10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.05.032
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