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- SourceAvailable from: Ignacio Sanz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: B cells are central players in multiple autoimmune rheumatic diseases as a result of the imbalance between pathogenic and protective B-cell functions, which are presumably mediated by distinct populations. Yet the functional role of different B-cell populations and the contribution of specific subsets to disease pathogenesis remain to be fully understood owing to a large extent to the use of pauci-color flow cytometry. Despite its limitations, this approach has been instrumental in providing a global picture of multiple B-cell abnormalities in multiple human rheumatic diseases, more prominently systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome. Accordingly, these studies represent the focus of this review. In addition, we also discuss the added value of tapping into the potential of polychromatic flow cytometry to unravel a higher level of B-cell heterogeneity, provide a more nuanced view of B-cell abnormalities in disease and create the foundation for a precise understanding of functional division of labor among the different phenotypic subsets. State-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry and novel multidimensional analytical approaches hold tremendous promise for our understanding of disease pathogenesis, the generation of disease biomarkers, patient stratification and personalized therapeutic approaches.Arthritis Research & Therapy 12/2015; 17(1):561. DOI:10.1186/s13075-015-0561-1
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ABSTRACT: It is known that the MDM2 protein is stabilized when it forms a heterodimer with its partner MDM4, but MDM2 protein stability in its homodimer form is not known. The MDM2 protein contains a C-terminal RING domain that not only functions as an E3 ligase to regulate ubiquitination of p53 and MDM2 itself, but also is characterized to be able to bind several specific cellular mRNAs to regulate gene expression. In this study, we evaluate whether the MDM2 protein stability is regulated by the binding of a specific small RNA (XIAP IRES mRNA). We performed chemical cross-linking and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to measure the human MDM2 protein stability in its homodimer form and the effect of XIAP IRES on MDM2 homodimerization and protein stabilization. Ubiquitination and pulse-chase assays were used to detect MDM2 self-ubiquitination and protein turn-over. Fluorescent titration and ITC were used to examine the binding between MDM2 RING protein and XIAP IRES. Western blot assay was used for determining protein expression. Clonogenic assay, WST and flow cytometry were used to test the effects of XIAP IRES, siXIAP and IR on cancer cell growth and apoptosis. We found that self-association (homodimerization) of MDM2 occurs through the C-terminal RING domain of MDM2 and that the MDM2 protein becomes unstable when it is homodimerized. MDM2 homodimerization resulted in an increased function of the RING domain for MDM2 self-ubiquitination. Binding of XIAP IRES to the RING domain inhibited MDM2 homodimerization and self-ubiquitination, which resulted in stabilization of MDM2, as well as increased XIAP expression. Upregulation of XIAP and MDM2 that led to inhibition of p53 by the XIAP IRES resulted in cell growth and survival in both p53-normal and -deficient cancer cells. Our study identified a new IRES RNA that interacts with MDM2 protein and regulates its stabilization, which suggested that targeting of MDM2 through disruption of MDM2 protein-RNA interaction might be a useful strategy for developing novel anti-cancer therapeutics.Molecular Cancer 12/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12943-015-0334-0
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ABSTRACT: Both grain surface and gas phase chemistry have been invoked to explain the disparate relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers acetic acid and glycolaldehyde in the Sgr B2(N) star-forming region. While a network of grain surface chemistry involving radical–radical reactions during the warm-up phase of a hot core is the most chemically viable option proposed to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative agreement between modeling and observation has yet been obtained. In this study, we seek to test additional grain surface and gas phase processes to further investigate methyl formate-related chemistry by implementing several modifications to the Ohio State University gas/grain chemical network. We added two new gas phase chemical pathways leading to methyl formate, one involving an exothermic, barrierless reaction of protonated methanol with neutral formic acid; and one involving the reaction of protonated formic acid with neutral methanol to form both the cis and trans forms of protonated methyl formate. In addition to these gas phase processes, we have also investigated whether the relative product branching ratios for methanol photodissociation on grains influence the relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers. We find that while the new gas phase formation pathways do not alter the relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers, changes in the photodissociation branching ratios and adjustment of the overall timescale for warm-up can be used to explain their relative ratios in Sgr B2(N).The Astrophysical Journal 09/2015; 728(1):71-9. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/728/1/71
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