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SourceAvailable from: Susanna L Widicus Weaver[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both grain surface and gas phase chemistry have been invoked to explain the disparate relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers acetic acid and glycolaldehyde in the Sgr B2(N) star-forming region. While a network of grain surface chemistry involving radical–radical reactions during the warm-up phase of a hot core is the most chemically viable option proposed to date, neither qualitative nor quantitative agreement between modeling and observation has yet been obtained. In this study, we seek to test additional grain surface and gas phase processes to further investigate methyl formate-related chemistry by implementing several modifications to the Ohio State University gas/grain chemical network. We added two new gas phase chemical pathways leading to methyl formate, one involving an exothermic, barrierless reaction of protonated methanol with neutral formic acid; and one involving the reaction of protonated formic acid with neutral methanol to form both the cis and trans forms of protonated methyl formate. In addition to these gas phase processes, we have also investigated whether the relative product branching ratios for methanol photodissociation on grains influence the relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers. We find that while the new gas phase formation pathways do not alter the relative abundances of methyl formate and its structural isomers, changes in the photodissociation branching ratios and adjustment of the overall timescale for warm-up can be used to explain their relative ratios in Sgr B2(N).The Astrophysical Journal 09/2015; 728(1):71-9. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/728/1/71
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) and TGFβ1 are growth-promoting and -inhibiting autocrine/paracrine growth factors, respectively, that may (1) affect risk for colorectal cancer and (2) be modifiable by anti-proliferative exposures. The effects of supplemental calcium and vitamin D3 on these two markers in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa in humans are unknown. We conducted a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial (n = 92; 23/treatment group) of calcium 2 g and/or vitamin D3 800 IU/d versus placebo over 6 mo. TGFα and TGFβ1 expression was measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis at baseline and 6-mo follow-up. In the calcium, vitamin D3 , and calcium plus vitamin D3 groups relative to the placebo group (1) the mean overall expression of TGFβ1 increased by 14% (P = 0.25), 19% (P = 0.17), and 22% (P = 0.09); (2) the ratio of TGFα expression in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) to that in the lower 60% (proliferation zone) of the crypts decreased by 34% (P = 0.11), 31% (P = 0.22), and 26% (P = 0.33); and (3) the TGFα/TGFβ1 ratio in the upper 40% of the crypts decreased by 28% (P = 0.09), 14% (P = 0.41), and 22% (P = 0.24), respectively. These preliminary results, although not statistically significant, suggest that supplemental calcium and vitamin D3 may increase TGFβ1 expression and shift TGFα expression downward from the differentiation to the proliferation zone in the crypts in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients, and support further investigation in a larger clinical trial. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Molecular Carcinogenesis 04/2015; 54(4). DOI:10.1002/mc.22096
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ABSTRACT: Authors’ summary Children are a significant asset of a country. Child deaths are an important way to determine the health sector development. The effectiveness of the interventions is required to prevent child deaths. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh. Data were collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. The results indicate that in Bangladesh there is an association with child deaths and mothers’ age, mothers’ education, social-economic status, birth interval, birth order, baby size and place delivered. For Bangladesh, this study recommends expanding female education to increase mothers’ knowledge, an awareness program about birth order (take one child) and an increase in the birth interval.PLoS neglected tropical diseases 03/2015; 9(3):e0003616. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003616
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