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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) materials are a new class of materials with interesting physical properties and applications ranging from nanoelectronics to sensing and photonics. In addition to graphene, the most studied 2D material, monolayers of other layered materials such as semiconducting dichalcogenides MoS2 or WSe2 are gaining in importance as promising channel materials for field-effect transistors (FETs). The presence of a direct bandgap in monolayer MoS2 due to quantum-mechanical confinement allows room-temperature FETs with an on/off ratio exceeding 10(8). The presence of high- κ dielectrics in these devices enhanced their mobility, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report on electrical transport measurements on MoS2 FETs in different dielectric configurations. The dependence of mobility on temperature shows clear evidence of the strong suppression of charged-impurity scattering in dual-gate devices with a top-gate dielectric. At the same time, phonon scattering shows a weaker than expected temperature dependence. High levels of doping achieved in dual-gate devices also allow the observation of a metal-insulator transition in monolayer MoS2 due to strong electron-electron interactions. Our work opens up the way to further improvements in 2D semiconductor performance and introduces MoS2 as an interesting system for studying correlation effects in mesoscopic systems.
    Nature Material 06/2013; 12(9). DOI:10.1038/nmat3687
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional materials are an emerging class of new materials with a wide range of electrical properties and potential practical applications. Although graphene is the most well-studied two-dimensional material, single layers of other materials, such as insulating BN (ref. 2) and semiconducting MoS2 (refs 3, 4) or WSe2 (refs 5, 6), are gaining increasing attention as promising gate insulators and channel materials for field-effect transistors. Because monolayer MoS2 is a direct-bandgap semiconductor due to quantum-mechanical confinement, it could be suitable for applications in optoelectronic devices where the direct bandgap would allow a high absorption coefficient and efficient electron-hole pair generation under photoexcitation. Here, we demonstrate ultrasensitive monolayer MoS2 phototransistors with improved device mobility and ON current. Our devices show a maximum external photoresponsivity of 880 A W(-1) at a wavelength of 561 nm and a photoresponse in the 400-680 nm range. With recent developments in large-scale production techniques such as liquid-scale exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition-like growth, MoS2 shows important potential for applications in MoS2-based integrated optoelectronic circuits, light sensing, biomedical imaging, video recording and spectroscopy.
    Nature Nanotechnology 06/2013; 8(7). DOI:10.1038/nnano.2013.100
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    ABSTRACT: Memory cells are an important building block of digital electronics. We combine here the unique electronic properties of semiconducting monolayer MoS2 with the high conductivity of graphene to build a 2D heterostructure capable of information storage. MoS2 acts as a channel in an intimate contact with graphene electrodes in a field-effect transistor geometry. Our prototypical all-2D transistor is further integrated with a multilayer graphene charge trapping layer into a device that can be operated as a nonvolatile memory cell. Because of its band gap and 2D nature, monolayer MoS2 is highly sensitive to the presence of charges in the charge trapping layer, resulting in a factor of 10(4) difference between memory program and erase states. The two-dimensional nature of both the contact and the channel can be harnessed for the fabrication of flexible nanoelectronic devices with large-scale integration.
    ACS Nano 03/2013; 7(4). DOI:10.1021/nn3059136
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    ABSTRACT: In our previous paper, we reported on switchable monolayer MoS2 transistors with a high on-off ratio and we claim that dielectric screening can be used to increase the mobility of monolayer MoS2. We estimated its mobility using a method previously applied by Lemme et al. to top-gated graphene nanoribbons. We discuss here the comments raised by M. Fuhrer and J. Hone in their post 1301.4288 and give our own estimates of the possible errors in previous mobility measurements and their origins.
    Nature Nanotechnology 03/2013; 8(3):147-8. DOI:10.1038/nnano.2013.31
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    ABSTRACT: The Bjøntegaard model is widely used to calculate the coding efficiency between different codecs. However, this model might not be an accurate predictor of the true coding efficiency as it relies on PSNR measurements. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a model to calculate the average coding efficiency based on subjective quality scores, i.e., mean opinion scores (MOS). We call this approach Subjective Comparison of ENcoders based on fItted Curves (SCENIC). To consider the intrinsic nature of bounded rating scales, a logistic function is used to fit the rate-distortion (R-D) values . The average MOS and bit rate differences are computed between the fitted R-D curves. The statistical property of subjective scores is considered to estimate corresponding confidence intervals on the calculated average MOS and bit rate differences. The proposed model is expected to report more realistic coding efficiency as PSNR is not always correlated with perceived visual quality.
    Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 01/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jvcir.2013.11.008
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) are extremely interesting for integration in nanoelectronic devices where they represent the ultimate limit of miniaturization in the vertical direction. Thanks to the presence of a band gap and subnanometer thickness, monolayer MoS(2) can be used for the fabrication of transistors exhibiting extremely high on/off ratios and very low power dissipation. Here, we report on the development of 2D MoS(2) transistors with improved performance due to enhanced electrostatic control. Our devices show currents in the 100 μA/μm range and transconductance exceeding 20 μS/μm as well as current saturation. We also record electrical breakdown of our devices and find that MoS(2) can support very high current densities, exceeding the current-carrying capacity of copper by a factor of 50. Our results push the performance limit of MoS(2) and open the way to their use in low-power and low-cost analog and radio frequency circuits.
    ACS Nano 10/2012; DOI:10.1021/nn303772b
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we apply a recent technique for the generation of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary to realize high-resolution distributed temperature sensing. The gratings generation method relies on the phase modulation of two pump waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), with a symbol duration that is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. This way the acoustic wave can efficiently build up in the medium at discrete locations only, where the phase difference between the two waves does not temporarily vary. The separation between neighboring correlation peaks can be made arbitrarily long. Using the proposed method, we experimentally demonstrate distributed temperature sensing with 5 cm resolution, based on modifications to both the local birefringence and the local Brillouin frequency shift in polarization maintaining fibers. The localization method does not require wideband detection and can generate the grating at any random position along the fiber, with complete flexibility. The phase-coding method is equally applicable to high-resolution SBS distributed sensing over standard fibers.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 05/2012; DOI:10.1117/12.922976
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    ABSTRACT: Reflections from movable, dynamic acoustic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers are employed in the long variable delay of periodic, isolated pulses. The gratings are introduced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction between two counter-propagating pump waves, which are spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift of the PM fiber and are both polarized along one of its principal axes. The gratings are interrogated by the reflections of read-out signals that are polarized along the orthogonal principal axis. High-rate phase modulation of both pump waves by a pseudo-random binary sequence introduces dynamic gratings that are both localized and stationary, at specific locations in which the modulated pumps are correlated. The separation between adjacent correlation peaks can be made arbitrarily long. Long variable delays are readily obtained by scanning the grating along the fiber, via changing either the length or the rate of the modulation sequence. At the same time, the short length of the gratings, on the order of a cm, accommodates the delay of broadband pulses. The technique is therefore free of the delay-times-bandwidth product limitation that undermines the performance of SBS-based 'slow light' delay: we report the delay 1-ns long pulses by as much as 770 ns. In addition, the combined reflections from two dynamic gratings with a variable separation are used to implement radio-frequency photonic filters of tunable free spectral range. At the current stage, the technique is restricted by noise from residual scattering that takes place outside of the correlation peaks. Hence, it is thus far limited to the processing of repetitive signals, for which the noise may be effectively averaged out.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 03/2012; DOI:10.1117/12.914725
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a novel compressed sensing technique to accelerate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition process. The method, coined spread spectrum MRI or simply s(2)MRI, consists of premodulating the signal of interest by a linear chirp before random k-space under-sampling, and then reconstructing the signal with nonlinear algorithms that promote sparsity. The effectiveness of the procedure is theoretically underpinned by the optimization of the coherence between the sparsity and sensing bases. The proposed technique is thoroughly studied by means of numerical simulations, as well as phantom and in vivo experiments on a 7T scanner. Our results suggest that s(2)MRI performs better than state-of-the-art variable density k-space under-sampling approaches.
    03/2012; 31(3):586-98. DOI:10.1109/TMI.2011.2173698
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    ABSTRACT: Optical fiber sensors based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers have now clearly demonstrated their excellent capability for long-range distributed strain and temperature measurements. The fiber is used as sensing element and a value for temperature and/or strain can be obtained from any point along the fiber. While the spatial resolution of classical configurations is practically limited to 1 meter by the phonon lifetime, novel approaches have been demonstrated these past years that can overcome this limit. In this paper, this could be achieved by two physical processes: prior activation of a steady acoustic wave through the classical Brillouin interaction between two Brillouin pumps, and interrogation by Bragg reflection on the acoustic wave using a distinct ultra-short pulse in a highly birefringent fiber. We could achieve a spatial resolution below one centimeter, while preserving the full accuracy on the determination of temperature and strain.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 02/2012; 12(1-12):189 - 194. DOI:10.1109/JSEN.2011.2126568
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