Durham University

Durham, United Kingdom

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Durham Business School
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School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
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Department of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W - N55W and between N55E – N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area’s stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge zones and adjoining highs. Late Eocene rocks exposed in the western part of the basin exhibit a complex network of branching segmented normal and strike-slip faults, generally with a NNW-SSE structural orientations. Many surface structural features have been interpreted from satellite images which confirm sinistral strike-slip kinematics. Relay ramp structures, numerous elongate asymmetric synclines associated with shallow west limbs and steeper dipping east limbs are developed in the hangingwalls adjacent to west downthrowing normal faults. These structural patterns reflect Cretaceous/Tertiary extensional tectonics with additional control by underlying pre-existing Pan-African basement fabrics and ENE-WSW trending Hercynian structures. We relate the Sirt Basin rift development as exemplified in our study area to the break-up of Gondwana represented by the structural evolution of the West-Central African rift system, and the South and Central Atlantic, the Tethys and the Indian Oceans.
    Journal of African Earth Sciences 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fast and efficient routing of emergency responders during the response to mass casualty incidents is a critical element of success. However, the predictability of the associated travel times can also have a significant effect on performance during the response operation. This is particularly the case when a decision support model is employed to assist in the allocation of resources and scheduling of operations, as such models typically rely on an ability to make accurate forecasts when evaluating candidate solutions. In this paper we explore how both routing efficiency and uncertainty in travel time prediction are affected by the routing strategy employed. A simulation study is presented, with results indicating that a routing strategy which allows responders to select routes autonomously, as opposed to being instructed via a central decision support program, leads to improvement in overall performance despite the associated increase in uncertainty in travel time prediction.
    Safety Science 12/2014; 70:80–88.
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    ABSTRACT: Ni x Mn 3Àx O 4+d (0.44x41) are a series of spinel structured materials exhibiting negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) characteristics. Thin films were produced on < 100> silicon substrates using rf magnetron sputtering in an oxygen/argon atmosphere (2.5% oxygen). Following deposition, the films were annealed at 800 C in air and the crystalline structure studied using X-ray diffraction. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to study the topology of the layers in both the as-deposited and annealed states. Annealing resulted in a more uniform and ordered structure. Tunneling conductance (dI/dV vs V) and normalised tunneling conductance {(dI/dV)/(1/V) vs V} characteristics were measured and used to generate conductance maps {dI/dV (x,y,eV)} and to study the local density of states (LDOS) of the film surface. The tunneling conductance maps showed islands of bright contrast in an otherwise relatively uniform background of dark contrast. There were substantially fewer bright contrast islands in annealed films and they appear to bear no relation to any topographical features. The distribution of the LDOS in the bright regions was similar to that normally associated with metallic behaviour, while in the regions of dark contrast, the LDOS was more characteristic of semiconductors (LDOS $ 0 at Fermi level). The resistance–temperature characteristics were measured and found to be consistent with conduction models based on electron hopping.


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Organic Electronics 01/2009; 10(7):1268-1274.

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