Durham, United Kingdom

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Durham Business School
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School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
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Department of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the first completely simultaneous observation of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) using an array of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, which is sensitive to photons in the very high energy (VHE) γ -ray range (100 GeV). On 2006 June 2, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) registered an unusually soft γ -ray burst (GRB 060602B). The burst position was under observation using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) at the time the burst occurred. Data were taken before, during, and after the burst. A total of 5 hr of observations were obtained during the night of 2006 June 2–3, and five additional hours were obtained over the next three nights. No VHE γ -ray signal was found during the period covered by the HESS observations. The 99% confidence level flux upper limit (> 1 TeV) for the prompt phase (9 s) of GRB 060602B is 2.9 × 10 −9 erg cm −2 s −1 . Due to the very soft BAT spectrum of the burst compared with other Swift GRBs and its proximity to the Galactic center, the burst is likely associated with a Galactic X-ray burster, although the possibility of it being a cosmological GRB cannot be ruled out. We discuss the implications of our flux limits in the context of these two bursting scenarios.
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    ABSTRACT: The question of how to introduce thermal fluctuations in the equation of motion of a magnetic system is addressed. Using the approach of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem we calculate the properties of the noise for both, the fluctuating field and the additive fluctuating torque (force) representation. In contrast to earlier calculations we consider the general case of a system of interacting magnetic moments. We show that the interactions do not result in any correlations of thermal fluctuations in the field representation and that the same widely used formula can be used in the most general case. We further prove that close to the equilibrium where the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is valid, both, field and additive torque (force) representations coincide, being different far away from it. We also show that the uncorrelated character of the noise is due to the form of the Landau-Lifshitz (or Gilbert) damping and under different damping formalisms, the normal mode analysis is proper.
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2015; 9:22. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00022


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Science of The Total Environment 01/2001; 263(1-3):1-10. DOI:10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00604-5
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