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    ABSTRACT: Computational prediction of potential miRNAs and their target genes was performed to identify the miRNAs and genes associated with temperature response in rice. The data of temperature-responsive miRNAs of Arabidopsis, and miRNAs and whole genome data of rice were used to predict potential miRNAs in O. sativa involved in temperature response. A total of 55 miRNAs were common in both the species. A total of 27 miRNAs were predicted at the first time in rice. Target genes were searched for these 27 miRNAs in rice genome following stringent criteria. Real time PCR based on expression analysis of nine miRNAs showed that majority of the miRNAs were down regulated under heat stress for rice cultivar Nagina 22. Furthermore, miR169, miR1884 and miR160 showed differential expression in root and shoot tissues of rice. Identification and expression studies of miRNAs during heat stress will advance the understanding of gene regulation under stress in rice.
    Rice Science 01/2014; 21(1):5.
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    ABSTRACT: We report here tagging and fine-mapping of gm3 gene, development of a functional marker for it and its use in marker-assisted selection. The recessive rice gall midge resistance gene, gm3 identified in the rice breeding line RP2068-18-3-5 confers resistance against five of the seven Indian biotypes of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae. We report here tagging and fine-mapping of gm3 gene, development of a functional marker for it and demonstrated its use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). A mapping population consisting of 302 F10 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross TN1 (susceptible)/RP2068-18-3-5, was screened against gall midge biotype 4 (GMB4) and analyzed with a set of 89 polymorphic SSR markers distributed uniformly across the rice genome. Two SSR markers, RM17480 and gm3SSR4, located on chromosome 4L displayed high degree of co-segregation with the trait phenotype and flanked the gene. In silico analysis of the genomic region spanning these two markers contained 62 putatively expressed genes, including a gene encoding an NB-ARC (NBS-LRR) domain containing protein. A fragment of this gene was amplified with the designed marker, NBcloning 0.9 Kb from the two susceptible TN1, Improved Samba Mahsuri (B95-1) and two resistant cultivars, RP 2068-18-3-5 and Phalguna (with Gm2 gene). The amplicons were observed to be polymorphic between the susceptible and resistant genotypes and hence were cloned and sequenced. A new primer, gm3del3, which was designed based on sequence polymorphism, amplified fragments with distinct size polymorphism among RP2068-18-3-5, Phalguna and TN1 and B95-1 and displayed no recombination in the entire mapping population. Expression of the candidate NB-ARC gene in the susceptible TN1 and the resistant RP2068-18-3-5 plants following infestation with GMB4 was analyzed, through real-time reverse transcription PCR. Results showed twofold enhanced expression in RP2068-18-3-5 plants, but not in TN1 plants, 120 h after infestation. Amino acid sequence and structure analysis of the proteins coded by different alleles of gm3 gene showed deletion of eight amino acids due to an early stop codon in RP2068-18-3-5 resulting in a change in the functional domain of the protein. The gm3del3 was used as a functional marker for introgression of gm3 gene into the genetic background of the elite bacterial blight resistant cultivar Improved Samba Mahsuri (B95-1) through MAS.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a predominant foliage feeder in all the rice ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine the development of leaf folder at 7 constant temperatures (18, 20, 25, 30, 32, 34, 35° C) and to estimate temperature thresholds and thermal constants for the forecasting models based on heat accumulation units, which could be developed for use in forecasting. The developmental periods of different stages of rice leaf folder were reduced with increases in temperature from 18 to 34° C. The lower threshold temperatures of 11.0, 10.4, 12.8, and 11.1° C, and thermal constants of 69, 270, 106, and 455 degree days, were estimated by linear regression analysis for egg, larva, pupa, and total development, respectively. Based on the thermodynamic non-linear optimSSI model, intrinsic optimum temperatures for the development of egg, larva, and pupa were estimated at 28.9, 25.1 and 23.7° C, respectively. The upper and lower threshold temperatures were estimated as 36.4° C and 11.2° C for total development, indicating that the enzyme was half active and half inactive at these temperatures. These estimated thermal thresholds and degree days could be used to predict the leaf folder activity in the field for their effective management.
    Journal of Insect Science 09/2013; 13(96):1-14.

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23 Journal of Rice Research. 3.
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