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Integrative Cancer Therapies 11/2013; 12(6):453. DOI:10.1177/1534735413502077
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ABSTRACT: Insects and nematodes are the most diverse and abundant groups of multicellular animals feeding on plants on either side of the soil-air interface. Several herbivore-induced responses are systemic, and hence can influence the preference and performance of organisms in other plant organs. Recent studies show that plants mediate interactions between belowground plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) and aboveground herbivorous insects. Based on the knowledge of plant responses to pathogens, we review the emerging insights on plant systemic responses against root-feeding nematodes and shoot-feeding insects. We discuss the potential mechanisms of plant-mediated indirect interactions between both groups of organisms and point to gaps in our knowledge. Root-feeding nematodes can positively or negatively affect shoot herbivorous insects, and vice versa. The outcomes of the interactions between these spatially separated herbivore communities appear to be influenced by the feeding strategy of the nematodes and the insects, as well as by host plant susceptibility to both herbivores. The potential mechanisms for these interactions include systemic induced plant defense, interference with the translocation and dynamics of locally induced secondary metabolites, and reallocation of plant nutritional reserves. During evolution, PPNs as well as herbivorous insects have acquired effectors that modify plant defense responses and resource allocation patterns to their advantage. However, it is also known that plants under herbivore attack change the allocation of their resources, e.g., for compensatory growth responses, which may affect the performance of other organisms feeding on the plant. Studying the chemical and molecular basis of these interactions will reveal the molecular mechanisms that are involved. Moreover, it will lead to a better understanding of the ecological relevance of aboveground-belowground interactions, as well as support the development of sustainable pest management technologies.Frontiers in Plant Science 04/2013; 4:87. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2013.00087
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ABSTRACT: The study documented medicinal plants that are traditionally used for treatment of malaria in Shinile District, eastern Ethiopia, and evaluated selected medicinal plants for their antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium berghei. The study was conducted in four kebeles of Shinile District, Somali Region, Ethiopia. A total of 15 traditional healers were sampled based on recommendations of local elders and administrators. Specimens of the reported antimalarial plants were collected and stored at the Mini Herbarium of the Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, following identification. Crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of Aloe sp., Azadirachta indica and Tamarindus indica were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei. The three plants were selected based on the frequency antimalarial use report by healers. The study revealed 27 antimalarial plants, the majority of which were harvested from the wild. Root was the most frequently sought plant part. Most of the remedies were used in decoction form. Aloe sp., Azadirachta indica and Tamarindus indica were the most commonly reported plants for their antimalarial use. For the in vivo test, all the plant extracts were given to mice orally. Ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Aloe sp. caused 73.94% and 58.10% parasitaemia suppression, respectively at dose of 650 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves induced 54.79% parasitaemia suppression at the dose of 650 mg/kg and its water extract induced 21.47% parasite suppression at a similar dose. Water extract of the fruits of Tamarindus indica showed the highest parasitaemia suppression (81.09%) at the dose of 650 mg/kg. Most Plasmodium berghei infected mice treated with high dose of plant extracts survived relatively longer compared to their respective controls although the difference was not significant. The result of this study may support the traditional use of Aloe sp., Azadirachta indica and Tamarindus indica in the study area against malaria. Results of this study can be used as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations in the effort for search of new and locally affordable antimalarial agents.Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2011; 139(1):221-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2011.11.006
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