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    ABSTRACT: Heat exchangers are omnipresent in every thermal system receiving or rejecting heat with its surroundings. Thermal performance of a system is highly dependent on the heat exchangers ability to transfer heat which is governed by distinct fluid flow characteristics in the tube passages. Use of corrugated tube results in higher heat exchange rates at the cost of additional power lost in friction. In search of thermo-hydraulically superior corrugation geometry, the present study investigates the effect of (modified tube surface) discrete corrugated rib roughened tube on heat transfer and frictional losses under varied fluid flow rates. Heat exchanger tubes having corrugated rib roughness with different number of gaps have been tested for pitch to rib height ratio (P/e) of 6-14 by operating under a wide range of flow Reynolds number (Re) from 7500 to 50,000. The maximum enhancements in Nusselt number and friction factor are found to be 2.73 and 2.78 corresponding to (P/e) of 10, (e/D) of 0.044 for the corrugated tube with five number of gaps. Thermo hydraulic performance parameter (η) lie between 1 and 1.76, 1.02–1.82 and 1.05–1.95 for type-1, type-2 and type-3 corrugated tube respectively. Experimental results show that type-3 corrugated tube with (P/e) of 10 is thermo-hydraulically superior than other configurations at the flow Reynolds number of 7343.
    Applied Thermal Engineering 01/2014; 66(s 1–2):162–170.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to formulate drug-loaded bio-lipstrips using novel bioexcipients isolated from the fruit pulp of Litchi chinesis (biomaterial L) and to explore the potentiality of lip skin as a novel translabial drug delivery system. The biomaterial, prepared by a simplified economical process and purified by hot dialysis, was subjected to various physicochemical evaluations along with spectral analysis including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The lipstrip formulated with the novel bioexcipients was screened for its functional properties, including filmability using a film-casting method, and bio/muco-adhesitivity using a shear-stress method, the Park and Robinson method and a rotating cylinder method. Rosiglitazone-loaded bio-lipstrips were formulated by using biomaterial L as a strip former and dextrose as a flexicizer. The formulated strips were subjected to various evaluations, including thickness, folding endurance, in-vitro release and in-vivo release. The release of rosiglitazone maleate was maintained over 24 h, which was confirmed in in-vitro and in-vivo release experiments. Our results reveal that this biopolymer possesses promising stripability as well as bio-adhesitivity. The formulated bio-lipstrips are feasible for delivering rosiglitazone maleate by translabial administration.
    Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The oral mucosa is an appropriate route for drug delivery systems, as it evades first-pass metabolism, enhances drug bioavailability and provides the means for rapid drug transport to the systematic circulation. This delivery system offers a more comfortable and convenient delivery route compared with the intravenous route. Although numerous drugs have been evaluated for oral mucosal delivery, few of them are available commercially. This is due to limitations such as the high costs associated with developing such drug delivery systems. Areas covered: The present review covers recent developments and applications of oral transmucosal drug delivery systems. More specifically, the review focuses on the suitability of the oral soft palatal site as a new route for drug delivery systems. Expert opinion: The novelistic oral soft palatal platform is a promising mucoadhesive site for delivering active pharmaceuticals, both systemically and locally, and it can also serve as a smart route for the targeting of drugs to the brain.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 04/2012; 9(6):629-647.

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    Dehradun, India
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