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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to formulate drug-loaded bio-lipstrips using novel bioexcipients isolated from the fruit pulp of Litchi chinesis (biomaterial L) and to explore the potentiality of lip skin as a novel translabial drug delivery system. The biomaterial, prepared by a simplified economical process and purified by hot dialysis, was subjected to various physicochemical evaluations along with spectral analysis including UV, FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR. The lipstrip formulated with the novel bioexcipients was screened for its functional properties, including filmability using a film-casting method, and bio/muco-adhesitivity using a shear-stress method, the Park and Robinson method and a rotating cylinder method. Rosiglitazone-loaded bio-lipstrips were formulated by using biomaterial L as a strip former and dextrose as a flexicizer. The formulated strips were subjected to various evaluations, including thickness, folding endurance, in-vitro release and in-vivo release. The release of rosiglitazone maleate was maintained over 24 h, which was confirmed in in-vitro and in-vivo release experiments. Our results reveal that this biopolymer possesses promising stripability as well as bio-adhesitivity. The formulated bio-lipstrips are feasible for delivering rosiglitazone maleate by translabial administration.
    Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The oral mucosa is an appropriate route for drug delivery systems, as it evades first-pass metabolism, enhances drug bioavailability and provides the means for rapid drug transport to the systematic circulation. This delivery system offers a more comfortable and convenient delivery route compared with the intravenous route. Although numerous drugs have been evaluated for oral mucosal delivery, few of them are available commercially. This is due to limitations such as the high costs associated with developing such drug delivery systems. Areas covered: The present review covers recent developments and applications of oral transmucosal drug delivery systems. More specifically, the review focuses on the suitability of the oral soft palatal site as a new route for drug delivery systems. Expert opinion: The novelistic oral soft palatal platform is a promising mucoadhesive site for delivering active pharmaceuticals, both systemically and locally, and it can also serve as a smart route for the targeting of drugs to the brain.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 04/2012; 9(6):629-647.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates & undertakes simulation based study of Adhoc Routing Protocols in Wi-Fi (802.11b) & WiMax (802.16e) Networks. In this paper comparison of four Routing Protocols AODV, DYMO, OLSR & IERP is done in a multicellular high mobility Wi-Fi & WiMax Networks using QualNet 5.0 Simulator. The metrics used for performance evaluation are Average Jitter, Throughput, End-to End delay, Signals received with errors, Average Queue Length, Packets to Application Layer, Total packets Received at the Receiver end. The results of both the Networks (Wi-Fi & WiMax) are compared. Keywords-Wi-Fi (802.11), WiMax (IEEE 802.16), AODV, IERP, DYMO, OLSR, QualNet simulator I.INTRODUCTION Wireless Networks has huge diversity ranging from Wi-Fi (802.11) covering small areas to WiMax (802.16) that covers several miles. Wi-Fi [1] is the industry name for wireless LAN (WLAN) communication technology related to the IEEE 802.11 family of wireless networking standards. Ad hoc network [3] is a network of mobile nodes that are self organizing connected by wireless links and are free to move independently and randomly and has the capability to change its links frequently. Mobile Adhoc networks are infrastructure less networks that can be build temporarily. Wireless networks adapted for covering cities, arrived a few years after the Wi-Fi type WLAN [1]. The IEEE 802.16 WiMax[2](World Wide Interoperability for Microwave Access) standard is based on global interoperability & is an emerging technology that delivers high speed wireless broadband at a much lower cost than the cellular services while covering large distances than Wi-Fi. It has been designed to be a cost-effective way to deliver broadband over a wide area. It is intended to handle high-quality voice, data and video services while offering a high Quality of service. Routing protocols in Mobile Adhoc & WiMax networks helps to connect source node with destination node to send & receive packets [3].Many protocols are designed but it is not easy to decide which one wins. Though [4], [5] & [6] illustrates the performance of the protocols. This paper throws light on comparative results of AODV, DYMO, IERP & OLSR protocols of Mobile Adhoc(Wi-Fi) & WiMax networks using QualNet Simulator [7] using CBR traffic. The results draw some general conclusion by considering MAC & Physical layer Model metrics which can be helpful for future research work. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section II gives the system description. Section III describes the results of all the protocols in Wi-Fi & WiMax networks. Finally, we conclude our paper in section IV. II.SYSTEM DESCRIPTION We develop two scenarios using QualNet 5.0, a software that provides scalable simulations of Wireless Networks to analyze the performance of different routing protocols in WiMax & Wi-Fi environment with CBR application.CBR is the data traffic that keeps bit rate same throughout the process.

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    Dehradun, India
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International Journal of Computer Applications. 12/2013; Volume-83(No. - 17):Page 43-48.
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Antenna Technology Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, 2006 IEEE International Workshop on; 02/2006
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