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ABSTRACT: A number of small studies have suggested a relationship between vitamin D status and severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), including RSV-bronchiolitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and severe RSV-bronchiolitis through a systemic literature review and meta-analysis. A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted to identify all studies published before January 2013. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts, followed by the full text of potential articles to evaluate eligibility. Study methodological quality was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa scale and individual component analysis. Meta-analysis evaluated associations at the allele and genotype levels. Of 803 studies identified from our literature search, three met eligibility criteria. Two VDR polymorphisms were included in more than one study: TaqI (rs731236) and FokI (rs2228570). All three reported a positive relationship between the FokI minor allele and disease with random effects meta-analyses demonstrating a statistically significant relationship (OR 1.52, CI: 1.12, 2.05). Genotype analysis was highly suggestive of a dominant or incomplete dominance model with combined odds ratios for fF (OR 1.73, CI: 0.92-3.36) and ff (OR 2.24, CI: 0.98-5.14) compared to the FF genotype. No association between TaqI and severe RSV-bronchiolitis was evident at the allele or genotype level. Available literature supports an association between the FokI polymorphism and severe RSV disease. Determination of VDR receptor polymorphism status could help predict high-risk infants who might benefit from preventive measures. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Pediatric Pulmonology 08/2014; 49(8). DOI:10.1002/ppul.22877
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate acute rehabilitation practices in pediatric critical care units across Canada. Retrospective cohort study. Six Canadian, tertiary care pediatric critical care units. Six hundred children aged under 17 years admitted to pediatric critical care unit during a winter and summer month of 2011 with a greater than 24-hour length of stay. None. The primary outcome of interest was the nature and timing of pediatric critical care unit rehabilitation practices.Rehabilitation was classified according to mobility and nonmobility interventions. Predictors of mobilization and the time to mobilization were evaluated through regression and time-dependent survival analyses, respectively. The most common form of rehabilitation provided in pediatric critical care unit was physical therapy (45.5% patients) followed by occupational therapy (4.5%) and speech and language therapy (1.5%). Interventions were primarily nonmobility in nature (69.7% of sessions), most frequently in the form of chest physiotherapy (42.7% of sessions). The median time to mobilization was 2 days (interquartile range, 1- early mobilization. Regression analyses revealed that increasing age, admission during winter, neuromuscular blockade, and sedative infusions were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving mobility therapy. Increasing age was a predictor of early mobilization, while neuromuscular blockade was associated with delayed mobilization. No significant differences in adverse events were found between nonmobility and mobility interventions. Only half of the children receive rehabilitation while in the pediatric critical care unit, and when it occurs, therapy is primarily focused on respiratory function. Mobilization appears to be reserved for at-risk children who were muscle relaxed and sedated; however, its implementation in these patients is delayed. Future pediatric-specific research is essential to identify patients at risk and to understand treatment priorities and rehabilitation strategies to improve functional recovery in critically ill children.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 04/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.1097/PCC.0000000000000160
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ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that the presence of even mild degrees of hearing loss and unilateral loss in early childhood can negatively affect typical development. Consequently, the identification of all children with permanent hearing loss including those with milder degrees of hearing loss is currently targeted through some newborn hearing screening initiatives. The objectives of this study were to document the proportion of children identified with mild bilateral or unilateral hearing loss (MBUHL) before and after the implementation of a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHS). A second objective was to examine the clinical characteristics and audiologic management of this population of children. This population-based study involved an analysis of data on children with hearing loss; these data had been collected prospectively over a 20-year period from 1990 to 2010 in a publicly funded pediatric teaching hospital in Canada, which provided diagnostic audiology services for all children in the region. The proportion of all children with hearing loss identified with MBUHL before and after implementation of UNHS and their clinical profiles were documented. Data related to amplification use were also retrospectively extracted from detailed medical chart reviews to investigate clinical recommendations regarding amplification and subsequent use of hearing devices. Factors affecting amplification decisions and amplification use were examined. A total of 381 of 823 children (46.3%) aged 0 to 18 years who were identified with permanent nonacquired hearing loss presented with MBUHL. The proportions identified were similar in the pre- and post-UNHS periods (p = 0.207). Before UNHS children were identified at a median age of 5.0 years (interquartile range: 3.6 to 7.0) compared with a median of 0.8 years, (interquartile range: 0.3 to 2.3) post-UNHS. Progression of hearing loss was documented for 22% of all children, and for the group identified since UNHS, 32.4% experienced deterioration in hearing thresholds. Although 87.2 % of children received recommendations for amplification, more than 50% experienced considerable delay from identification to amplification. Age at identification and severity of hearing loss in the better ear were associated with amplification decisions for bilateral but not unilateral loss. MBUHL constitutes almost half of childhood hearing loss. UNHS has lowered age of confirmation of MBUHL by 4 to 5 years. Delay to amplification suggests uncertainty of the benefit of intervening early for these losses. Further research is required to determine the effects of early-identified MBUHL on children's development and to document the benefits of early amplification.Ear and hearing 12/2013; 35(1). DOI:10.1097/AUD.0b013e31829e1ed9
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