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ABSTRACT: Here we report the preparation of collagen-poly(dialdehyde) guar gum based hybrid functionalized scaffolds covalently immobilized with platelet derived growth factor - BB for tissue engineering applications. Poly(dialdehyde) guar gum was synthesized from selective oxidation of guar gum using sodium periodate. The synthesized poly(dialdehyde) guar gum not only promotes crosslinking of collagen but also immobilizes the platelet derived growth factor through imine bonds. The covalent crosslinking formed in collagen improves thermal, swelling and biodegradation properties of the hybrid scaffolds. The prepared hybrid scaffolds show 3D interconnected honeycomb porous structure when viewed under a microscope. The release of immobilized platelet derived growth factor was seen up to 13th day of incubation thereby proving its sustained delivery. The developed hybrid scaffold leads to a quantum increase in NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell density and proliferation thereby demonstrating its potential for tissue engineering applications.
Carbohydrate Polymers 12/2014; 114:399–406.
Tetrahedron Letters 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Efficient processing methodologies such as ultrasounds which would achieve significant enhancements in processes thereby minimizing sectional stream wastes in one hand and bring about economic benefits on other are necessary. Hence, research studies on application of ultrasound in process industries such as leather, textiles and chemicals are gaining importance. In this regard, a case study has been presented in this paper for solid–liquid tanning extraction and tanning from a plant material. For this purpose, Avaram Bark (Cassis Auriculata) which contains ingredients such as ployphenolics, useful in stabilization of collagen, the main constituent of skins/hides. Avaram Bark tannin come under the group of ‘condensed tannins’ useful in main tanning process of leather making. The influence of various process parameters such as ultrasonic power, time and agitation on extraction has been studied. The results show significant 1.6–fold improvement for total extract due to the use of ultrasound, 100 W as compared to magnetic stirring control process, suggesting better mass transfer enhancement in leaching of strongly bound tannins from avaram bark due to ultrasound. Efficacy of tannin extract (10% or 20% offer) has been analyzed through application in tanning process and found to be useful. There has been significant improvement in rate of tannin uptake for ultrasonic extract as compared to control extract by the bovine pelt, suggesting diffusion enhancement of tanning agent through the pelt matrix. Use of ultrasound in avaram extract tanning has also been studied and found to be useful. Therefore, the present study clearly indicates the use of ultrasound in Avaram bark tannin extraction and tanning as a viable option with added advantages even dispensing with external heating.
Chemical Engineering Research and Design 04/2014;
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