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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: World Health Organisation data suggest that two million women live with the physical and psychosocial effects of obstetric fistula. As part of an expanded fistula programme in Tanzania, Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania (CCBRT) introduced an evaluation strategy to include impact of surgery on psychosocial aspects of obstetric fistula. This is an initial report documenting morbidity on admission. METHODS: A questionnaire assessing the impact of obstetric fistula was developed taking into account literature in the field including sections on: patient contact information, transport costs and a set of statements regarding the effects of fistula. The effects were spread across five domains: the physical consequences of obstetric fistula, the effects of a difficult delivery and possible stillbirth, the experience of isolation, the inability to undertake daily living activities and feelings of depression. The questionnaire was administered in Kiswahili by Tanzanian counsellors shortly after admission of patients onto the fistula ward. RESULTS: A total of 100 fistula patients reported high rates of physical and psychosocial morbidity. Over half of the patients said they would not have been able to access treatment without the transport costs being covered. CONCLUSIONS: Fistula patients are affected by extremely high rates of physical and psychosocial morbidity. Further work is required to confirm these findings, validate assessment tools and assess contributing factors in greater detail over time, such as the effect of stillbirth, as well as the impact of surgery.
    International Urogynecology Journal 11/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of: Rijkaart DC, Berkhof J, van Kemenade FJ et al. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study): results and implications. Br. J. Cancer 106(5), 975-981 (2012). Previous studies have shown that the combination of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cytology increases sensitivity for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, a surrogate end point for the reduction of cervical cancer. This paper addressed three questions regarding the implementation of high-risk HPV testing within a cervical screening program. The main question addressed was whether high-risk HPV testing should be provided as a standalone primary screen or in combination with cytology. Management of HPV-positive women and the optimum age for HPV testing were also examined. Results identified limited benefit from co-testing compared with HPV testing alone and emphasized the importance of repeat testing for HPV-positive women with negative cytology triage at baseline, in all women from 30 years of age onwards.
    Future Oncology 07/2012; 8(7):783-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Those with disabilities are often among the poorest and most vulnerable. Even when health care is provided free, transport costs may pose an insurmountable barrier to accessing treatment. This report outlines a new initiative in Tanzania which utilizes mobile phone technology to transfer funds covering transport costs for patients with obstetric fistulae or cleft lip and/or palate. The transportMYpatient initiative surpassed the set targets and saw a 65% increase in the number of fistulae repairs performed in 2010 compared with the year before and almost triple the number of cleft lip/palate repairs. Using mobile phone technology to transfer funds is an innovative way of overcoming a significant barrier to health-care access for patients in developing countries.
    Tropical Doctor 04/2012; 42(2):77-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The XY-linker region of somatic cell PLC (phospholipase)-β, -γ, -δ and -ε isoforms confers potent catalytic inhibition, suggesting a common auto-regulatory role. Surprisingly, the sperm PLCζ XY-linker does not mediate auto-inhibition. Unlike for somatic PLCs, the absence of the PLCζ XY-linker significantly diminishes both in vitro PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) hydrolysis and in vivo Ca2+-oscillation-inducing activity, revealing evidence for a novel PLCζ enzymatic mechanism.
    Biochemical Journal 07/2011; 438(3):427-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence supports incorporation of HPV testing into cervical screening; however, the optimal test format and target population have yet to be confirmed. Assessment of the potential benefits of type-specific testing requires estimation of the risk associated with infection with individual HPV types. However, the risk posed by individual HPV types may be population specific and influenced by cervical screening practice. The existing data on HPV type-specific risk is derived largely from unscreened populations. Our study addressed the lack of data on HPV type-specific risk in cytologically screened populations using a case-control study of 262 invasive cervical cancers diagnosed in Wales between 2000 and 2006, and 8,428 controls who attended for cytological screening in 2004. The analysis showed that the odds ratios (ORs) for infection with HPV 16 and 18 are considerable; 2770 (95% CI 1050-7320) and 950 (95% CI 330-2740), respectively, and that the OR for other oncogenic types are in general considerably less (ranging, where quantified, from 20.2 to 386 in the same population). The effect of age on OR associated with particular HPV types was also assessed; this indicated that infection with a high-risk HPV in women older than 40 years was associated with an approximately 30-fold increased risk of invasive cervical cancer relative to women younger than 40 years. These results indicate that there is significant prognostic information associated with knowledge of HPV type.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2011; 128(7):1676-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic and potentially life threatening condition resulting from excessive ovarian stimulation. Reported incidence varies from 1% to 10% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The factors contributing to OHSS have not been completely explained. The release of vasoactive substances secreted by the ovaries under human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation may play a key role in triggering this syndrome. This condition is characterised by a massive shift of fluid from the intra-vascular compartment to the third space resulting in profound intra-vascular depletion and haemoconcentration. To assess the effect of withholding gonadotrophins (coasting) on the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproduction cycles. For the update of this review we searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Review Group Trials Register (July 2010), CENTRAL (inception to July 2010), MEDLINE (PubMed) (inception to July 2010), and EMBASE (inception to July 2010) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which coasting was used to prevent OHSS. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which coasting was used to prevent OHSS were included. Two review authors independently selected trials and extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Study authors were contacted to request additional information or missing data. The intervention comparisons were coasting versus early unilateral follicular aspiration (EUFA), no coasting or other interventions. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group guidelines. This updated review identified 16 studies of which four met the inclusion criteria. There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of moderate and severe OHSS (odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.23), live birth (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.62; P = 0.24) or in the clinical pregnancy rate (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.08) between the groups. Significantly fewer oocytes were retrieved in coasting groups compared with GnRHa (OR -2.44, 95% CI -4.30 to -0.58; P = 0.01) or no coasting (OR -3.92, 95% CI -4.47 to -3.37; P < 0.0001). Data for coasting versus EUFA were not pooled for number of oocytes retrieved due to heterogeneity (I(2) = 87%). There was no evidence to suggest a benefit of using coasting to prevent OHSS compared with no coasting or other interventions.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2011;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic and potentially life threatening condition resulting from excessive ovarian stimulation. Reported incidence varies from 1% to 10% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The factors contributing to OHSS have not been completely explained. The release of vasoactive substances secreted by the ovaries under human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation may play a key role in triggering this syndrome. This condition is characterised by a massive shift of fluid from the intra-vascular compartment to the third space resulting in profound intra-vascular depletion and haemoconcentration. To assess the effect of withholding gonadotrophins (coasting) on the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproduction cycles. For the update of this review we searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Review Group Trials Register (July 2010), CENTRAL (inception to July 2010), MEDLINE (PubMed) (inception to July 2010), and EMBASE (inception to July 2010) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which coasting was used to prevent OHSS. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which coasting was used to prevent OHSS were included. Two review authors independently selected trials and extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. Study authors were contacted to request additional information or missing data. The intervention comparisons were coasting versus early unilateral follicular aspiration (EUFA), no coasting or other interventions. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group guidelines. This updated review identified 16 studies of which four met the inclusion criteria. There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of moderate and severe OHSS (odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.23), live birth (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.62; P = 0.24) or in the clinical pregnancy rate (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.08) between the groups. Significantly fewer oocytes were retrieved in coasting groups compared with GnRHa (OR -2.44, 95% CI -4.30 to -0.58; P = 0.01) or no coasting (OR -3.92, 95% CI -4.47 to -3.37; P < 0.0001). Data for coasting versus EUFA were not pooled for number of oocytes retrieved due to heterogeneity (I(2) = 87%). There was no evidence to suggest a benefit of using coasting to prevent OHSS compared with no coasting or other interventions.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2011;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive ovarian stimulation. The crucial event in the development of OHSS is the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The early onset of OHSS typically presents in the luteal phase as a consequence of ovulatory hCG. The late onset of OHSS presents in early gestation when endogenous hCG further stimulates the ovary. Many strategies have been proposed for OHSS prevention, but they may reduce but not eliminate the risk. This article reviews the evidence related to the elective cryopreservation of all embryos and their subsequent transfer in women at risk of OHSS. More research is needed to determine whether using elective cryopreservation of embryos can reduce the rate of severe OHSS in in vitro insemination (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Results from many retrospective studies are encouraging, but prevention in terms of (1) identification of the high-risk population using new biochemical markers of ovarian response such as anti-Müllerian hormone, (2) tailoring ovarian stimulation and using less aggressive protocols (gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists or mild IVF), and (3) blastocyst culture to allow clinical monitoring of early-onset OHSS, with eventual blastocyst cryopreservation, might represent a multistep approach worth further investigation.
    Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 11/2010; 28(6):513-8.
  • Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 02/2008; 34(1):19.
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide with high risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection playing an essential aetiological role. Oestrogen interacts with HPV at a cellular level causing cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis. Indole derivatives, formed during digestion of cruciferous vegetables, have been shown to have chemopreventative properties inhibiting HPV transcription and influencing oestrogen metabolism. This review describes the interactions between HPV, oestrogen and indole derivatives. Further clinical research is required to evaluate the chemopreventative properties of these agents.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2008; 52(1):105-13.
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