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ABSTRACT: We present rest-frame 15 and 24 μm luminosity functions (LFs) and the corresponding star-forming LFs at z < 0.3 derived from the 5MUSES sample. Spectroscopic redshifts have been obtained for ∼98% of the objects and the median redshift is ∼0.12. The 5–35 μm Infrared Spectrograph spectra allow us to estimate accurately the luminosities and build the LFs. Using a combination of starburst and quasar templates, we quantify the star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributions in the mid-IR spectral energy distribution. We then compute the SF LFs at 15 and 24 μm, and compare with the total 15 and 24 μm LFs. When we remove the contribution of AGNs, the bright end of the LF exhibits a strong decline, consistent with the exponential cutoff of a Schechter function. Integrating the differential LF, we find that the fractional contribution by SF to the energy density is 58% at 15 μm and 78% at 24 μm, while it goes up to ∼86% when we extrapolate our mid-IR results to the total IR luminosity density. We confirm that the AGNs play more important roles energetically at high luminosities. Finally, we compare our results with work at z ∼ 0.7 and confirm that evolution on both luminosity and density is required to explain the difference in the LFs at different redshifts.The Astrophysical Journal 01/2016; 734(1):40-11. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/734/1/40
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ABSTRACT: Comets rarely come close enough to be studied intensively with Earth-based radar. The most recent such occurrence was when Comet 103P/Hartley 2 passed within 0.12 AU in late 2010 October, less than two weeks before the EPOXI flyby. This offered a unique opportunity to improve pre-encounter trajectory knowledge and obtain complementary physical data for a spacecraft-targeted comet. 103P/Hartley 2 is only the fourth comet nucleus to be imaged with radar and already the second to be identified as an elongated, bilobate object based on its delay-Doppler signature. The images show the dominant spin mode to be a rotation about the short axis with a period of 18.2 hr. The nucleus has a low radar albedo consistent with a surface density of 0.5–1.0 g cm −3 . A separate echo component was detected from large (>cm) grains ejected anisotropically with velocities of several to tens of meters per second. Radar shows that, in terms of large-grain production, 103P/Hartley 2 is an unusually active comet for its size.The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2016; 734(1):2-4. DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/734/1/L2
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ABSTRACT: We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals.Zoology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.zool.2015.10.001
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