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    ABSTRACT: The swift evolution rate of avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus demands constant efforts to update inactivated vaccines to match antigenically with the emerging new field virus strains. Recently, a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT)-AI vaccine, rHVT-H5, expressing the HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 clade 2.2 A/Swan/Hungary/499/ 2006 strain inserted into FC-126 strain of HVT vector, has been developed to combat current threats in poultry industry. Here, we present the results of two trials where rHVT-H5 was tested alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines (the latter vaccines contained antigens produced by using a clade 2.1.3 HPAI H5N1 virus [A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007] in the first trial or mixture of antigen produced by strain A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007 and A/Ck/Banten-Tangerang/2010 [bivalent vaccine] for second trial) in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) carrying maternally derived antibodies to H5N1 and then challenged with Indonesian HPAI H5N1 field isolates. The effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated on the basis of clinical protection (morbidity and mortality) and measurement of virus shedding after challenge. Immune response to vaccination was followed by serology. In the first experiment, chickens were vaccinated at the day of hatch with rHVT-H5 alone (Group 1) or combined with inactivated vaccine at day old (Group 2) or at 10 days of age (Group 3). The chickens along with nonvaccinated hatch-mates were challenged at 28 days of age with the HPAI H5N1 field isolate dade 2.1.3 A/Chicken/WestJava-Subang/29/2007. Eighty, 100%, and 80% clinical protection was recorded in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A similar experiment was performed a second time, but the chicks in Group 3 received the inactivated vaccine earlier, at 7 days of age. Challenge was performed at 28 days of age using a different H5N1 isolate, clade 2.1.3 A/Ck/Purwakarta-Cilingga/142/10. Clinical protection achieved in the second trial was 95%, 75%, and 90% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Shedding of challenge virus was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups compared with controls in both experiments. Vaccinated birds developed hemagglutination inhibition antibody response to H5N1 by the time of challenge. These experiments confirmed that the rHVT-H5 vaccine applied alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines could provide high level (> 80%) clinical protection against divergent HPAI H5N1 field isolates after single immunization by 4 wk of age and a significant reduction in the excretion of challenge virus.
    Avian Diseases 12/2012; 56(4 Suppl):923-7. DOI:10.1637/10169-041012-ResNote.1
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β β β β β (TGF-β β β β β) is a two-chain polypeptide with molecular weight of 25 kDa which takes significant role in the steroidogenesis process. In the ovarian oocyte in particular, TGF-β β β β β has an important role in regulating reproductive function. TGF-β β β β β represents a key intrafollicular protein that regulates follicle development and aromatization process. The purpose of this research was to characterize and identify a protein fraction of TGF-β β β β β from the bovine isolated oocytes, which is synthesized during in vitro oocyte maturation process. Oocytes were collected from follicles with diameter of 3-8 mm. Oocytes were then matured in TCM 199 media supplemented with 5 μ μ μ μ μg/mg LH, 3% BSA, and 50 μ μ μ μ μg/ml gentamicin sulfate, and cultured in CO 2 incubator (5%, 38.5 o C) for 20 hours. TGF-β β β β β receptors were identified immunohistochemically. Characteristics of the TGF-β β β β β protein were determined using SDS PAGE and TGF-β β β β β specification was tested using Western Blotting. The results showed that TGF-β β β β β receptors were identified and found in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). TGF-β β β β β protein was isolated from bovine oocytes with molecular weight 25 kDa and it was identified by Western blotting methods in the same molecular weight.
    03/2012; 19(1). DOI:10.4308/hjb.19.1.6
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    ABSTRACT: Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 01/2012; 47 Suppl 1:18-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2011.01960.x
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    ABSTRACT: Heterotopic grafting sites can be useful in producing oocytes for in vitro Fertilization, therefore, maximising the oocyte yield from the graft by gonadotrophin stimulation would be advantageous. The aim of this study was to investigate the number and quality of oocytes collected from heterotopic autografted ovary after Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadothropin (PMSG) induction. Graft recipients were treated either with or without PMSG stimulation 48 hours prior to graft collection. Ovarian tissue from four weeks old mice (DDY strain) were autotransplanted under the kidney capsule of the same ovariectomized mice and the oocytes were collected 21 days after autotransplantation. The results showed that the average number of oocytes collected from autografted ovaries without PMSG induction were 9.0. + 2.8 not significantly different with those received PMSG induction, 10.9 + 5.1. The percentage of matured and fertilized oocytes and the developed embryos from the autografted ovaries without PMSG induction were 52.4, 33.4, and 26.0%, respectively not significantly different with those received PMSG induction, 53.2, 35.1, and 29.9%, respectively. The number of oocytes and the capacity to matured, fertilized and developed were significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared to the superovulated nongrafted (control) ovaries. In conclusion, PMSG induction on the graft recipients did not significantly increase oocytes yield from grafted heterotopic ovaries. The number and quality of oocytes produced from the autografted ovaries were lower than the superovulated nongrafted ovaries, but still can be used for in vitro embryo production after sequential in vitro maturation and fertilization.
    12/2011; 18(4). DOI:10.4308/hjb.18.4.151
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi keragaman gen FSH beta-subunit dengan metode PCR-RFLP sebagai penanda kualitas sperma pada sapi Bali. Pengambilan sampel darah untuk ekstraksi DNA dari berbagai populasi sebanyak 470 sampel dan 127 sampel yang berasal dari Balai Nasional Inseminasi Buatan dan Balai Inseminasi Buatan Regional beserta data sperma. Frekuensi alel pada sapi Bali adalah alel A (0,000) dan alel B (1,000). Tidak ditemukannya alel A menunjukkan gen FSH beta-subunit pada sapi Bali bersifat monomorfik. Hasil yang berbeda pada sapi Brahman, FH, Simmental dan Limousin yang bersifat polimorfik dengan adanya alel A dan B. Heterozigositas pengamatan tertinggi pada sapi Limousin (0,318) dan heterozigositas harapan tertinggi pada sapi Simmental (0,420). Nilai chi-square tidak berpengaruh nyata pada sapi Bali dan Simmental, namun pada sapi Brahman, FH dan Limousin berpengaruh nyata. Pada bangsa sapi yang dianalisis persentase abnormalitas sperma lebih tinggi ditemukan pada sapi Simmental, Limousin, Brahman dibandingkan pada sapi Bali dan FH. Persentase abnormalitas sperma tipe abaxial lebih tinggi ditemukan pada sapi Brahman, Simmental dibandingkan pada sapi FH. Dari semua tipe abnormalitas sperma, persentase tipe abaxial dan microcephalus paling tinggi. Kata kunci : Gen FSH beta-subunit, polimorfisme, abnormalitas sperma ABSTRACT The aim of study was to identify the association of FSH beta-subunit gene polymorphisms with sperm quality traits. A total of 470 samples of normal mature bull from several breeds were used for population study and 127 bulls from National and Regional AI centre of Indonesia for association study. To amplify, a PCR-RFLP method was used and digested with Pst1 restriction enzyme. The allele frequency of the A and B in Bali cattle were (0.000) and (1.000), respectively. The absence of other allele A suggested that the Bali cattle was monomorphic, while Brahman, FH, Simmental and Limousine were polymorphic. The highest observed heterozygosity were found in Limousine (0.318) and the highest expected heterozygosity were in Simmental (0.420). The higher incident of percentage of sperm abnormalities were found in Simmental, Limousin, Brahman compared to Bali and FH. Among all types of sperm abnormalities, the abaxial and microcephalus were found in highest number.
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    ABSTRACT: SC1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule purified from the Gallus gallus spinal cord. SC1 is present in embryonic tissues and plays a role in chick development through its cell adhesive property. Interestingly, increased SC1 expression is observed in some sporadic tumours of the chicken, including Marek's disease-induced lymphomas and in nephroblastomas. To elucidate the possible functions of SC1 in tumour progression in the chicken, SC1 cDNA was introduced into the endogenous SC1-negative Marek's disease-derived chicken lymphoblastoid cell line MDCC-MSB1, and subsequently the metastatic potentials of these cell lines were analysed. The in vitro analyses revealed that the SC1-transfected MDCC-MSB1 cells were enhanced in their adhesive and migratory activities in the presence of the SC1 proteins. In addition, the metastatic potential of the SC1-transfected MDCC-MSB1 cells to the lung was enhanced after intravenous implantation into chickens. These findings suggest that the expression of SC1 contributes to the malignancy and metastatic properties of chicken Marek's disease-induced lymphomas.
    Avian Pathology 02/2011; 40(1):111-5. DOI:10.1080/03079457.2010.541901
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the research was to find out the effect of Curcumma, Zn-proteinate, and Cu-proteinate supplementation on subclinical mastitis status in term of 4% FCM milk production. The research was conducted using 24 heads of lactating dairy cows in Randomized Block Design with six treatments, and four groups of milk production as replication i.e. I= >14 kg/day ; II= 12-13.99 kg/day ; III= 10-11.99 kg/day; IV= <10 kg/day. Treatments were: R 1 (Control); R 2 (R 1 + 2% Zn proteinate); R 3 (R 1 + 2% Cu-proteinate); R 4 (R 1 + 2% Curcumma); R 5 (R 1 + 2% Zn-proteinate + 2% Cu-proteinate); R 6 (R 1 + 2% Zn-proteinate + 2% Cu-proteinate + 2% Curcumma). Parameters observed were 4%FCM milk production and subclinis status. The results showed that ration supplemented with Curcumma, Zn-proteinate, and Cu-proteinate decreased mastitis subclinic status and 4% FCM milk production increased significantly. Supplementation of Curcumma, Zn-proteinate, and Cu-proteinate resulted is the best for decrease in subclinical mastitis indicator and increase 4% FCM milk production.
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    ABSTRACT: In the most species studied sperm abnormalities have long been associated with male infertility and sterility. This study evaluated the sperm morphology (normality and abnormality) of beef cattle at several Artificial Insemination centers in Indonesia. Total of 142 bulls were used in this study; an ejaculate from each bull was examined. A drop of semen was placed on 3-4 glass slides, and smears were prepared and air-dried. The smears were stained with carbolfluchsin-eosin (Williams stain). Types of morphological abnormalities were recorded from 500 cells on each sample. It was recorded that 77.46% samples had low primary sperm abnormalities (<5%), while the high level of primary sperm abnormalities (>10%) was found in 5.63% samples. Pear shaped was the most frequently type of abnormality found on examined samples (2.24 ± 2.94%); while double head was the lowest (0.01 ± 0.04%).
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    Animal Behaviour 01/2010; 79(1):187-193. DOI:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.10.026
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study was to compare Tris egg yolk and Citrate egg yolk extender and supplementation of fructose on citrate egg yolk on the quality of Friesian Holstein (FH) bull semen stored at 5 o C. Semen was collected from 5 FH bulls using an artificial vagina. The semen were evaluated macroscopic and microscopically. The semen divided into three tubes and extended with Tris egg yolk (TEY), Citrate egg yolk (CEY) or Citrate fructose egg yolk (CFEY). Extended semen was stored at 5 o C and evaluate daily for sperm motility and viability. There was no significant differences (P>0.05) on the sperm viability among three extender, for every time observation during 144 hours of storage. This similar finding found on the sperm motility in all extender for 48 hours of storage. The sperm motility in TEY demonstrated significantly greater (P<0.05) than in CFEY and CEY extender at 72 to 120 hours storage. In the end of storage, sperm motility in TEY (35.2 ± 4.1%) and CFEY (33.5 ± 2.71%) extender statistically indicated no significant different, and both were greater than CEY. In conclusion, CFEY support the sperm motility as good as TEY of FH bull.
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