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    ABSTRACT: The swift evolution rate of avian influenza (AI) H5N1 virus demands constant efforts to update inactivated vaccines to match antigenically with the emerging new field virus strains. Recently, a recombinant turkey herpesvirus (rHVT)-AI vaccine, rHVT-H5, expressing the HA gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 clade 2.2 A/Swan/Hungary/499/ 2006 strain inserted into FC-126 strain of HVT vector, has been developed to combat current threats in poultry industry. Here, we present the results of two trials where rHVT-H5 was tested alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines (the latter vaccines contained antigens produced by using a clade 2.1.3 HPAI H5N1 virus [A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007] in the first trial or mixture of antigen produced by strain A/Ck/WestJava-Nagrak/2007 and A/Ck/Banten-Tangerang/2010 [bivalent vaccine] for second trial) in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) carrying maternally derived antibodies to H5N1 and then challenged with Indonesian HPAI H5N1 field isolates. The effectiveness of vaccination was evaluated on the basis of clinical protection (morbidity and mortality) and measurement of virus shedding after challenge. Immune response to vaccination was followed by serology. In the first experiment, chickens were vaccinated at the day of hatch with rHVT-H5 alone (Group 1) or combined with inactivated vaccine at day old (Group 2) or at 10 days of age (Group 3). The chickens along with nonvaccinated hatch-mates were challenged at 28 days of age with the HPAI H5N1 field isolate dade 2.1.3 A/Chicken/WestJava-Subang/29/2007. Eighty, 100%, and 80% clinical protection was recorded in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A similar experiment was performed a second time, but the chicks in Group 3 received the inactivated vaccine earlier, at 7 days of age. Challenge was performed at 28 days of age using a different H5N1 isolate, clade 2.1.3 A/Ck/Purwakarta-Cilingga/142/10. Clinical protection achieved in the second trial was 95%, 75%, and 90% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Shedding of challenge virus was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups compared with controls in both experiments. Vaccinated birds developed hemagglutination inhibition antibody response to H5N1 by the time of challenge. These experiments confirmed that the rHVT-H5 vaccine applied alone or in combination with inactivated H5N1 vaccines could provide high level (> 80%) clinical protection against divergent HPAI H5N1 field isolates after single immunization by 4 wk of age and a significant reduction in the excretion of challenge virus.
    Avian Diseases 12/2012; 56(4 Suppl):923-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 01/2012; 47 Suppl 1:18-20.
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    ABSTRACT: SC1 is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule purified from the Gallus gallus spinal cord. SC1 is present in embryonic tissues and plays a role in chick development through its cell adhesive property. Interestingly, increased SC1 expression is observed in some sporadic tumours of the chicken, including Marek's disease-induced lymphomas and in nephroblastomas. To elucidate the possible functions of SC1 in tumour progression in the chicken, SC1 cDNA was introduced into the endogenous SC1-negative Marek's disease-derived chicken lymphoblastoid cell line MDCC-MSB1, and subsequently the metastatic potentials of these cell lines were analysed. The in vitro analyses revealed that the SC1-transfected MDCC-MSB1 cells were enhanced in their adhesive and migratory activities in the presence of the SC1 proteins. In addition, the metastatic potential of the SC1-transfected MDCC-MSB1 cells to the lung was enhanced after intravenous implantation into chickens. These findings suggest that the expression of SC1 contributes to the malignancy and metastatic properties of chicken Marek's disease-induced lymphomas.
    Avian Pathology 02/2011; 40(1):111-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the research was to find out the effect of Curcumma, Zn-proteinate, and Cu-proteinate supplementation on subclinical mastitis status in term of 4% FCM milk production. The research was conducted using 24 heads of lactating dairy cows in Randomized Block Design with six treatments, and four groups of milk production as replication i.e. I= >14 kg/day ; II= 12-13.99 kg/day ; III= 10-11.99 kg/day; IV= <10 kg/day. Treatments were: R 1 (Control); R 2 (R 1 + 2% Zn proteinate); R 3 (R 1 + 2% Cu-proteinate); R 4 (R 1 + 2% Curcumma); R 5 (R 1 + 2% Zn-proteinate + 2% Cu-proteinate); R 6 (R 1 + 2% Zn-proteinate + 2% Cu-proteinate + 2% Curcumma). Parameters observed were 4%FCM milk production and subclinis status. The results showed that ration supplemented with Curcumma, Zn-proteinate, and Cu-proteinate decreased mastitis subclinic status and 4% FCM milk production increased significantly. Supplementation of Curcumma, Zn-proteinate, and Cu-proteinate resulted is the best for decrease in subclinical mastitis indicator and increase 4% FCM milk production.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Polyclonal antibodies against fumigaclavine A (FuA) were obtained from rabbits after immunization with a FuA-keyhole limpet hemocyanine conjugate prepared by formaldehyde condensation. Using these antibodies and a FuA-bovine serum albumine conjugate, a competitive indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was established. The antiserum obtained from one rabbit enabled highly sensitive detection of FuA, with an IC50 level and detection limit of the standard curve of 3.3 ng/ml and approx. 1 ng/ml, respectively. The EIA was very specific for FuA, with 1.3% cross-reactivity with FuB. Several other lysergic acid derivatives (ergonovine, ergotamine, alpha-ergocryptine) were tested but did not cross-react in the FuA EIA. This is the first description of antibodies against FuA and the first development of an EIA for FuA.
    Mycotoxin Research 10/2009; 25(3):159-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus) and banteng (Bos javanicus), respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(5):e5490.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the occurrence of Salmonella and Shigella in infant formula from Southeast Asia, 74 packages of dehydrated powdered infant follow-on formula (recommended age, > 4 months) from five different manufacturers, four from Indonesia and one from Malaysia, were analyzed. None of the 25-g test portions yielded Salmonella or Shigella. However, further identification of colonies growing on selective media used for Salmonella and Shigella detection revealed the frequent occurrence of several other Enterobacteriaceae species. A total of 35 samples (47%) were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Ten samples (13.5%) from two Indonesian manufacturers yielded Enterobacter sakazakii. Other Enterobacteriaceae isolated included Pantoea spp. (n = 12), Escherichia hermanii (n = 10), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 8), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (n = 3), Citrobacter spp. (n = 2), Serratia spp. (n = 2), and Escherichia coli (n = 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the contamination of dehydrated powdered infant formula from Indonesia with E. sakazakii and several other Enterobacteriaceae that could be opportunistic pathogens. Improper preparation and conservation of these products could result in a health risk for infants in Indonesia.
    Journal of food protection 12/2006; 69(12):3013-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution and relative frequency of six kinds of endocrine cells in the stomach of the Malayan pangolin, Manis javanica were studied immunohistochemically using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. The stomach of the pangolin has three regions of mucous gland, one oxyntic gland and one pyloric gland. Cells immunoreactive for chromogranin, serotonin, somatostatin, BPP and glucagon were detected in all of the gastric glands, while gastrin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entire gastric gland except for the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells in the mucous gland and pyloric gland was mainly from the middle to apical portions of the glands. The endocrine cells were rare or not detected in the basal portion of all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland, but they were also found in the basal portion of the oxyntic gland. The distribution pattern of the endocrine cells in the mucous and pyloric glands suggested that this position facilitates a quick response to the luminal ingesta. The wide distribution of gastrin-immunoreactive cells in all of the mucous glands and pyloric gland was the most remarkable finding. This distribution suggests a major function of gastrin-immunoreactive cells for the digestive process in the Malayan pangolin stomach.
    Anantomia Histologia Embryologia 01/2006; 34(6):373-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Frozen-thawed spermatozoa collected from a beef bull (Japanese Black) were used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) of matured oocytes obtained from dairy (Holstein) and beef (Japanese Black) females. Embryos were examined for fertilization, cleavage rate, interval between insemination and blastocyst production (experiment I), total cell number per embryo and sex ratio during blastocyst formation (experiment II), and blastocyst production rate of zygotes that developed to 2-, 4-, and 8-cell stages at 48h post-fertilization (experiment III). Fertilized oocytes were cultured in vitro on a cumulus cell co-culture system. The fertilization and cleavage rate of oocytes groups were similar, however, the blastocyst production rate was greater (P<0.05) in hybrid than from purebred embryos (27% versus 20%). Development of blastocysts produced from hybrid embryos developed at a faster rate than blastocysts produced from the straightbred embryos. In hybrid embryos, blastocyst production was significantly greater on day 7 (56%) and gradually decreased from 20% on day 8 to 17% on day 9. In contrast, blastocyst production rate from the purebred embryos was lower on day 7 (17%), increasing on day 8 to 59% and then decreased on day 9 to 24%. The total number of cells per embryo and sex ratio of in vitro-produced blastocysts were not different between hybrid and purebred embryos. The number of blastocysts obtained from embryos at the 8-cell stage of development by 48h post-fertilization (94%) was greater (P<0.01) than the number of zygotes producing blastocysts that had developed to the 4-cell stage (4%) and the 2-cell stage (2%) during the same interval. These results show that the blastocyst production rate and developmental rate to the blastocyst stage were different between hybrid and purebred embryos, and that almost all of the in vitro-produced blastocysts were obtained from zygotes that had developed to the 8-cell stage 48h post-fertilization.
    Animal Reproduction Science 10/2003; 78(1-2):1-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty lactating ewes were used to evaluate the effect of superovulation on milk production. Twelve ewes had been injected, prior to mating, with 700 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin; 18 ewes were injected with saline as a control. Thirteen ewes (nine control and four superovulated ewes) were fed at low plane of nutrition; the other ewes (nine control and eight superovulated ewes) were fed at high plane of nutrition. Superovulated ewes, fed at both low and high planes of nutrition, had dramatically higher milk yields (59%), and their milk composition was not changed. Plane of nutrition increased milk lactose and P contents without significant effect on milk production. The increased milk yields in the superovulated ewes were accompanied by increases in dry matter, gross energy intakes, and gross efficiency of milk synthesis. At the end of lactation, superovulated ewes had higher mammary dry fat-free tissue, total DNA, and total RNA. The results demonstrated that superovulation prior to mating dramatically increased milk production and efficiency regardless of plane of nutrition. Increased milk production and efficiency in the superovulated ewes were due to the increased mammary secretory cell numbers and their synthetic activities presumably through the increased endogenous hormonal stimulation of mammary growth and development during pregnancy.
    Journal of Dairy Science 04/2000; 83(3):477-83.
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