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    ABSTRACT: Using the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis acute toxicity tests, we estimated the toxicity of Corexit 9500A(®), propylene glycol, and Macondo oil. Ratios of 1:10, 1:50 and 1:130 for Corexit 9500A(®):Macondo oil mixture represent: maximum exposure concentrations, recommended ratios for deploying Corexit (1:10-1:50), 1:130 the actual dispersant:oil ratio used in the Deep Water Horizon spill. Corexit 9500A(®) and oil are similar in their toxicity. However, when Corexit 9500A(®) and oil are mixed, toxicity to B. manjavacas increases up to 52-fold. Extrapolating these results to the oil released by the Macondo well, suggests underestimation of increased toxicity from Corexit application. We found small differences in sensitivity among species of the B. plicatilis species complex, likely reflecting phylogenetic similarity. Just 2.6% of the water-accommodated fraction of oil inhibited rotifer cyst hatching by 50%, an ecologically significant result because rotifer cyst in sediments are critical resources for the recolonization of populations each Spring.
    Environmental Pollution 11/2012; 173C:5-10. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.09.024
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    ABSTRACT: Wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies represent a serious ecological problem worldwide. In underdeveloped and developing countries wastewater treatment plants (WTP) only count with basic treatment, leading to the pollution of important aquatic reservoirs causing critical situations. In the present work, a one year evaluation of toxicity and main physical and chemical parameters of one of the major WTP of the state of Aguascalientes was conducted fortnightly, and to assess treatment alternatives for this WTP we tested: a) three white rot fungi (WRF), b) a photo-electrochemical process, c) ion-exchangers resins and activated carbon. The 3 WRF exhibited high COD removal from influents (72 - 95 %) but only Phanerochaete chrysosporium reached significant toxicity removals (70 and 55 %, for an influent and an effluent, respectively). Treatments with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes resulted with the highest toxicity and COD removals (96 % for both parameters) in comparison to biological and physicochemical treatments. Adsorption with activated carbon, zeolite and chelex ion-exchange resins removed 60 - 90 % of COD and 60 - 99 % toxicity. These results could be used to improve operation of the Industrial Park WTP and to plan future modifications to the plant.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 03/2012; 47(4):589-97. DOI:10.1080/10934529.2012.650578
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    ABSTRACT: We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green® analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 12/2011; 109:127-32. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.12.007
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    ABSTRACT: This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niágara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators.
    Environmental Pollution 07/2011; 159(7):1831-5. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.03.021
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    ABSTRACT: Rotifers commonly experience desiccation stress in their natural habitats and have evolved physiological mechanisms to deal with these challenges. These adaptations allow them to survive complete desiccation and revive to establish new populations upon rehydration. The physiological changes associated with entry into and exit from the desiccated state are profound and have a lingering effect on the revived rotifers. Desiccation induces a generalized stress response in rotifers, and this may confer resistance to a variety of toxicants. Rotifers exposed to toxicants soon after emerging from desiccation may be more resistant than rotifers not recently desiccated. Typical toxicity tests using rotifers obtain test animals from live cultures or by hatching resting eggs. We were interested whether recent emergence from desiccation alters the response to toxicants; so we investigated how anhydrobiosis affects the bdelloid Philodina sp. and how diapause affects the monogonont Brachionus calyciflorus. Here we present data on the toxicant responses of Philodina sp. and B. calyciflorus using reproductive assays performed with four reference toxicants before and after desiccation. Rotifers recently emerged from desiccation generally had higher EC50s. The observed increase in toxicant resistance may be due to the expression of two groups of proteins known to be involved in tolerance of toxicant and desiccation stress. KeywordsRotifers-Diapause-Reproduction-Ammonia-Mercury-Pentachlorophenol-SP and LEA proteins
    Hydrobiologia 09/2010; 652(1):185-193. DOI:10.1007/s10750-010-0330-8
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    ABSTRACT: The title compound, [Zn(3)(C(9)H(21)SiS)(6)] or [((i)Pr(3)SiS)Zn(mu-SSi(i)Pr(3))(2)Zn(mu-SSi(i)Pr(3))(2)Zn(SSi(i)Pr(3))], is the first structurally characterized homoleptic silanethiolate complex of zinc. A near-linear arrangement of three Zn(II) ions is observed, the metals at the ends being three-coordinate with one terminally bound silanethiolate ligand. The central Zn(II) ion is four-coordinate and tetrahedral, with two bridging silanethiolate ligands joining it to each of the two peripheral Zn(II) ions. The nonbonding intermetallic distances are 3.1344 (11) and 3.2288 (12) A, while the Zn...Zn...Zn angle is 172.34 (2) degrees. A trimetallic silanethiolate species of this type has not been previously identified by X-ray crystallography for any element.
    Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications 12/2009; 65(Pt 12):m475-7. DOI:10.1107/S0108270109045570
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    ABSTRACT: An environmental study revealed that three metals (Al, Fe and Zn) are common in the San Pedro River (SPR) (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Regrettably, in many samples the concentrations of these metals exceeded the maximum allowed toxicant concentrations levels as defined in by Mexican legislation. The highest concentrations of the three metals were found during the 2005 dry season, with elevated Al concentrations present along the entire river. Not surprisingly, the highest concentrations for all three metals came from locations adjacent to industrial areas. Estimates of the contribution of these metals to total toxicity revealed that these three metals are important contaminants of the river and responsible for most of the lethal toxicity found in environmental samples. To assess the importance of these reports, we conducted acute toxicity tests to determine LC50 for Al, Fe and Zn on the freshwater rotifer Lecane quadridentata. This permitted us to estimate the contribution of these metals to total toxicity during 2005–2006. Based on LC50 values, all three metals should be considered very toxic, with the zinc LC50 value (0.12 mg L−1) making it the most toxic metal for L. quadridentata. This approach can be applied to other sites with similar concentrations of these metals.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 11/2009; 73(3-73):287-295. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.10.006
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    ABSTRACT: We present an implicit finite-difference scheme to approximate solutions of generalized α-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam systems defined on bounded domains which, amongst other features, include the presence of external and internal damping. Both continuous and semi-discrete media are considered in this paper, and several other scalar parameters are considered in the mathematical model. The numerical method is consistent with the problems under study, and it has a discrete energy scheme associated with it. It is shown that the method consistently approximates the continuous rate of change of energy of the mathematical problem with respect to time and, as a corollary, we obtain that the method is conservative when the damping coefficients are equal to zero, and the boundary points either are fixed or satisfy null Neumann conditions. We briefly state the computational details of the implementation, and simulations showing the validity of our method are provided in this work. As a result, we observe that our method preserves the energy of conservative systems at a high degree of accuracy. Finally, we present numerical experiments that evidence the effects of the presence of the damping coefficients in the problem that originated the investigation of α-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam chains more than 50 years ago.
    Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 07/2009; 14(7):3200-3212. DOI:10.1016/j.cnsns.2008.12.013
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    ABSTRACT: We have determined lead concentration of water, sediment, and zooplankton samples of El Niágara, a reservoir in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Our results include the first report of bioconcentration factor (BCF) obtained in an actual ecosystem (as opposed to the experimental setups in the laboratory) for a rotifer species; Asplanchna brigthwellii (BCF ca. 49 300). The BCF of this predatory zooplanktonic species (A. brigthwellii) are up to four times greater than those of two grazing zooplanktonic species (Daphnia similis and Moina micrura). In this contaminated reservoir that lacks fishes, Asplanchna, and Culex sp. together with ducks and other bigger invertebrates might represent the top predators. Our data suggest that biomagnification of lead through at least one trophic level can occur in freshwater systems. Biomagnification in A. brigthwellii might be explained in part by predation of this voracious predator on young of the herbivorous cladoceran, M. micrura. Our findings stand opposite to the current theoretical framework where lead biomagnification occurs only in lower trophic levels.
    Environmental Toxicology 08/2008; 23(4):459-65. DOI:10.1002/tox.20357
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative study of toxicity levels of the San Pedro River and its main tributaries around the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico was conducted. Our study determined individual CL(50) values for each sampling point at 3 different times of the year corresponding to the main seasons of the year in terms of the hydrological cycle (dry, low rain and high rain season). Those LC(50) values were used to calculate the acute. Toxicity Units (aTU) that allowed us to compare levels of toxicity along the San Pedro River and two of its main tributaries. The sample that showed highest toxicity was IPIVA. This is due to the large quantity of industrial discharges that receives. Its effluent was responsible for the largest contribution of toxicity to the San Pedro River over the three rounds of sampling of this study. Our study classified an important portion of the San Pedro River and two of its main tributaries in toxic, moderately toxic and lightly toxic. No portion of the river studied was free of toxicity, either acute or sublethal. This study demonstrated that in spite of the operation of several water treatment plants along the San Pedro River, for the most part, the water quality of the river is still unacceptable.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 09/2007; 42(10):1403-10. DOI:10.1080/10934520701480557
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