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    ABSTRACT: Two studies are reported that investigate the applicability of prospect theory to college students' academic decision making. Exp. 1 failed to provide support for the risk-seeking portion of the fourfold pattern predicted by prospect theory but did find the greater weighting of losses over gains. Using a more sensitive dependent measure, in Exp. 2 the results of the first experiment were replicated in terms of the gain-loss effect and also found some support for the fourfold pattern in the interaction between probabilities and gain versus loss. The greatest risk-seeking was found in the high probability loss condition.
    Psychological Reports 08/2011; 109(1):289-300.
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    ABSTRACT: Forecasting involves predicting outcomes based on observations of the situation at hand. We examined the impact of the number and types of consequences considered on the quality of ethical decision-making. Undergraduates role-played several ethical problems in which they forecast potential outcomes and made decisions. Performance pressure (difficult demands placed on the situation) and interpersonal conflict (clashes among people in the problem situation) were manipulated within each problem scenario. The results indicated that the identification of potential consequences was positively associated with both higher quality forecasts and more ethical decisions. Neither performance pressure nor interpersonal conflict affected the quality of forecasts or decisions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings and the use of this research approach are discussed.
    Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 03/2011; 6(1):25-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Frame-of-reference training has been shown to be an effective intervention for improving the accuracy of performance ratings (e.g., Woehr & Huffcutt, 1994). Despite evidence in support of the effectiveness of frame-of-reference training, few studies have empirically addressed the ultimate goal of such training, which is to teach raters to share a common conceptualization of performance (Athey & McIntyre, 1987; Woehr, 1994). The present study tested the hypothesis that, following training, frame-of-reference-trained raters would possess schemas of performance that are more similar to a referent schema, as compared with control-trained raters. Schema accuracy was also hypothesized to be positively related to rating accuracy. Results supported these hypotheses. Implications for frame-of-reference training research and practice are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Psychology 09/2009; 94(5):1336-44.
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the prediction that individual differences in self-actualization would be associated with six academic orientations which influence college students' adjustment to their studies. Volunteer undergraduates, solicited from courses in the sciences and liberal arts and invited to complete internet measures of the academic orientations and self-actualization were 137 men and 311 women (M age=21.1, SD=4.8). Statistically significant bivariate correlations obtained between scores on self-actualization with all six orientations: creative expression, reading for pleasure, academic efficacy, and, inversely, structure dependence, academic apathy, and mistrust of instructors. Regression analysis showed that four orientations were independently related to self-actualization scores. The role of these four orientations in actualizing students' adjustment was discussed, and implications were drawn about the interpretation of scores on the four orientations.
    Psychological Reports 05/2007; 100(2):604-12.
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    ABSTRACT: In a 2002 publication, Mowrer and McCarver reported weak but significant correlations (r =.24) between scores on the Multicultural Perspective Index and scores on Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin's 1961 Life Satisfaction Index-A and the Life Satisfaction Scale developed in 1985 by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin. Using 382 undergraduate students the present study reduced the Index from 42 to 29 items based on each item's correlation with total items. An additional 104 undergraduate students then completed the modified 29-item version, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, Cheek and Buss's Shyness Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale by Zung, and the Neugarten, et al. Life Satisfaction Index-A. Scores on the modified Index were negatively correlated with those on the Depression and Shyness scales and positively correlated with scores on the Self-esteem and Life Satisfaction scales (p< .05).
    Psychological Reports 12/2004; 95(3 Pt 2):1227-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The relationships between extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and performance were examined in the context of an error detection task completed under stable and shifting workload conditions. 114 participants checked two sets of 40 fictitious prescriptions for errors. Errors were inserted at rates varying from 26% to 38%. Workload was manipulated by altering the amount of time allowed to complete each set. The stable workload group had 45 min. per set, the workload up-shift group had 60 min. for the first set and 30 min. for the second set. Performance was measured using hit rates and false alarms. Analysis indicated that extraversion and conscientiousness were correlated with hit rates, but only in the stable workload condition. Results are discussed and research directions are considered.
    Psychological Reports 07/2004; 94(3 Pt 2):1301-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study represents a preliminary investigation of Ramirez' contention that developing a multicultural identity would lead to better mental health and more life satisfaction. Using a tentative index of a multicultural perspective analysis indicated that, although a multicultural perspective is associated with more life satisfaction, it accounts for only 8% of the variance. Further, one of the measures used by Ramirez to measure an aspect of a multicultural perspective was not correlated with life satisfaction, and another correlated negatively. This latter measure accounts for only 6% of the variance in life satisfaction. Combined, these findings provide limited support for Ramirez perspective by explaining 14% of the overall variance in life satisfaction.
    Psychological Reports 03/2002; 90(1):251-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of 108 normal volunteers (grouped as blood Types O, A, and B/AB) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory. The results suggest that the association between depression and blood Type O that has been found for hospitalized patients can also be observed in normal patients.
    Psychological Reports 07/2001; 88(3 Pt 1):725-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The validity of the assumptions about the color red in the Lüscher color theory were examined by correlating preference for red to locus of control and sex. Undergraduates (100 men and 100 women) who scored < or = 8 or > or = 16 on the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were administered the short form of the Lüscher Color Test. Consistent with the assumptions by Lüscher about the color red, the analysis of variance showed that Internal scorers preferred red significantly more than External scorers, but no sex difference was found.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 08/2000; 91(1):84-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A single experiment is reported which investigated possible personality differences between college students who responded to a mail survey and those who did not. 208 college students completed the 16PF as part of a class assignment. Then each student was mailed a survey dealing with either a national or local issue (environmental, media, or sports). Multivariate analysis of the 16 subscales of the 16PF yielded a significant interaction between sex and response type. Subsequent protected univariate analyses identified significant sex x response type interactions on scales Q2 (Self-reliance), F (Liveliness), and O (Apprehension). Mean differences on the Self-reliance and Apprehension were sex differences rather than personality differences between responders and nonresponders. The only mean difference for response type was on Liveliness and applied only to men; responders scored lower than nonresponders. Multivariate analysis of the global scales of the 16PF yielded a significant interaction between sex and response type. Protected univariate analyses indicated a significant interaction between sex and response type on the Extraversion scale and a sex difference; female nonresponders scored higher than male nonresponders. No other comparisons were significant.
    Psychological Reports 07/2000; 86(3 Pt 1):901-8.
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