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ABSTRACT: Recommender systems provide an impressive way to overcome information overload problem. However, they are vulnerable to profile injection or shilling attacks. Malicious users and/or parties might construct fake profiles and inject them into user-item databases to increase or decrease the popularity of some target products. Hence, they may have an effective impact on produced predictions. To eliminate such malicious impact, detecting shilling profiles becomes imperative. In this work, we propose a novel shilling attack detection method for particularly specific attacks based on bisecting k-means clustering approach, which provides that attack profiles are gathered in a leaf node of a binary decision tree. After evaluating our method, we perform experiments using a benchmark data set to analyze it with respect to success of attack detection. Our empirical outcomes show that the method is extremely successful on detecting specific attack profiles like bandwagon, segment, and average attack.Procedia Computer Science 12/2014; 31:165–174. DOI:10.1016/j.procs.2014.05.257
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ABSTRACT: Stable conformers and geometrical molecular structures of 1H-indene-2-boronic acid (I-2B(OH)(2)) were studied experimentally and theoretically using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region of 4000-400 cm(-1), and 3700-400 cm(-1), respectively. The optimized geometric structures were searched by Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid density functional theory method with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Vibrational wavenumbers of I-2B(OH)(2) were calculated using B3LYP density functional methods including 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Experimental and theoretical results show that density functional B3LYP method gives satisfactory results for predicting vibrational wavenumbers except OH stretching modes which is probably due to increasing unharmonicity in the high wave number region and possible intra and inter molecular interaction at OH edges. To support the assigned vibrational wavenumbers, the potential energy distribution (PED) values were also calculated using VEDA 4 (Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis) program.Journal of Molecular Structure 11/2014; 1076:147–152. DOI:10.1016/j.molstruc.2014.07.039
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ABSTRACT: Utilization of supercritical CO2 in safflower seed extraction was performed using a semi-batch extractor. Different extraction parameters, such as 40-60 MPa pressure, 323-347 K temperature, 20-76 min time, and 1-3 mL/min CO2 flow rate were applied. A two-stage experimental design application was performed in order to maximize the oil yield. First of all, a 32 factorial design was applied to estimate the effect of the main factors and their interactions. The second part of the experimental design was improved and accelerated using the steepest ascent method. Optimum extraction parameters were determined to be 50 MPa pressure, 347 K temperature and 76 min time at a constant CO2 flow rate (3 mL/min) according to the 22 design. Under these conditions, the oil yield obtained was 39.42%, comparable with Soxhlet extraction (40%) for 8 hours. Shrinking core and empirical kinetic models were applied in order to generalize the extraction process. The predicted data was compatible with the experimental data.Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 10/2014; 94. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2014.06.019
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